E found that the absolute number of LMNCs was higher in

E found that the absolute number of LMNCs was higher in IRAK-M2/2 mice than in WT B6 mice after binge JI-101 cost alcohol consumption (Figure 2G), suggesting that IRAK-M acts as a negative regulator for alcohol-induced steatohepatitis.Increased Number of T Cells and CD68+ Cells and Decreased Foxp3+ Treg Cells in the Liver of IRAK-M2/2 Mice after Alcohol TreatmentTo identify the cell type infiltrating liver tissue, we extracted the infiltrated LMNCs from livers of IRAK-M2/2 and WT B6 mice and analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with a panel of immune cell markers. As shown in Figure 3A , more CD4+ TIRAK-M Regulates Liver InjuryFigure 6. Altered gut permeability and composition of gut bacteria in the intestine after alcohol treatment. (A) FITC-dextran concentration in blood after gut permeability test in wild type B6 mice (blue) and IRAK-M2/2 mice (red). (B) LPS content in the blood of B6 mice (open bar) and IRAK-M2/2 mice (solid bar). (C) Number of culturable bacteria in the 18334597 intestine before (blue) and after (red) binge alcohol treatment (ALC) in wild type B6 and IRAK-M2/2 mice. (D) G+/G2 gut bacteria ratio from mouse feces tested by Q-PCR before (blue) and after (red) binge alcohol treatment in wild type B6 and IRAK-M2/2 mice. Experiments were performed 3 times for A and twice for B, C and D. The data presented in A, C and D were from one of the experiments, and those shown in B were from pooled 2 experiments. n = 2? in each group of each experiment. Error bars represent the SD of samples within a group. *P,0.05, **P,0.01 (Student’s t-test). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057085.gcells were found in the livers of IRAK-M2/2 mice than WT B6 mice after alcohol treatment. CD68+ cells [30] were also significantly increased among the infiltrated LMNCs in IRAKM2/2 mice (Figure 3A ). There was no difference in B cells (B220+CD19+) (Fig. 3B) and CD11b+ macrophages (data not shown) in LMNCs from IRAKM2/2 and WT B6 mice after alcohol exposure. As expected that there was no difference in LMNCs from control PBS treated WT or IRAK-M2/2 mice (Figure 3C). To study whether binge alcohol consumption would affect Treg cells in the liver, we examined CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells in LMNCs. Despite an increase in CD4+ T cells in LMNCs from IRAK-M2/2 mice, we found a significant decrease of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells in the liver of alcohol treated IRAK-M2/2 mice compared to WT B6 mice (Figure 3D and 3E). The decrease of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells appeared to be restricted to liver, as we did not find any obvious changes in other lymphoid tissues including spleen (Figure 3F and 3G). There was also no difference in Treg cells in non-alcohol treated IRAK-M2/2 and WT B6 mice (Figure 3D ).a significant increase in IFNc producing CD8+ T cells in LMNCs of IRAK-M2/2 mice after alcohol consumption compared to WT B6 mice (Figure 4A and 4B). There was also a significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 production by CD11b+ cells (regardless of the expression of CD68) in LMNCs of IRAK-M2/2 mice compared with WT B6 mice (Figure 4C and 4D). It is interesting that despite the increase of CD4+ T cells in LMNCs of IRAK-M2/2 mice after alcohol consumption, we did not find any obvious difference in pro-inflammatory cytokine production by these cells comparing the IRAK-M deficient and sufficient mice (data not shown). We also investigated other PD-168393 proinflammatory (TNFalpha, IL-12, IL-17) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines in LMNCs and did not find significant changes in any subset of LMN.E found that the absolute number of LMNCs was higher in IRAK-M2/2 mice than in WT B6 mice after binge alcohol consumption (Figure 2G), suggesting that IRAK-M acts as a negative regulator for alcohol-induced steatohepatitis.Increased Number of T Cells and CD68+ Cells and Decreased Foxp3+ Treg Cells in the Liver of IRAK-M2/2 Mice after Alcohol TreatmentTo identify the cell type infiltrating liver tissue, we extracted the infiltrated LMNCs from livers of IRAK-M2/2 and WT B6 mice and analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with a panel of immune cell markers. As shown in Figure 3A , more CD4+ TIRAK-M Regulates Liver InjuryFigure 6. Altered gut permeability and composition of gut bacteria in the intestine after alcohol treatment. (A) FITC-dextran concentration in blood after gut permeability test in wild type B6 mice (blue) and IRAK-M2/2 mice (red). (B) LPS content in the blood of B6 mice (open bar) and IRAK-M2/2 mice (solid bar). (C) Number of culturable bacteria in the 18334597 intestine before (blue) and after (red) binge alcohol treatment (ALC) in wild type B6 and IRAK-M2/2 mice. (D) G+/G2 gut bacteria ratio from mouse feces tested by Q-PCR before (blue) and after (red) binge alcohol treatment in wild type B6 and IRAK-M2/2 mice. Experiments were performed 3 times for A and twice for B, C and D. The data presented in A, C and D were from one of the experiments, and those shown in B were from pooled 2 experiments. n = 2? in each group of each experiment. Error bars represent the SD of samples within a group. *P,0.05, **P,0.01 (Student’s t-test). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057085.gcells were found in the livers of IRAK-M2/2 mice than WT B6 mice after alcohol treatment. CD68+ cells [30] were also significantly increased among the infiltrated LMNCs in IRAKM2/2 mice (Figure 3A ). There was no difference in B cells (B220+CD19+) (Fig. 3B) and CD11b+ macrophages (data not shown) in LMNCs from IRAKM2/2 and WT B6 mice after alcohol exposure. As expected that there was no difference in LMNCs from control PBS treated WT or IRAK-M2/2 mice (Figure 3C). To study whether binge alcohol consumption would affect Treg cells in the liver, we examined CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells in LMNCs. Despite an increase in CD4+ T cells in LMNCs from IRAK-M2/2 mice, we found a significant decrease of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells in the liver of alcohol treated IRAK-M2/2 mice compared to WT B6 mice (Figure 3D and 3E). The decrease of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells appeared to be restricted to liver, as we did not find any obvious changes in other lymphoid tissues including spleen (Figure 3F and 3G). There was also no difference in Treg cells in non-alcohol treated IRAK-M2/2 and WT B6 mice (Figure 3D ).a significant increase in IFNc producing CD8+ T cells in LMNCs of IRAK-M2/2 mice after alcohol consumption compared to WT B6 mice (Figure 4A and 4B). There was also a significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 production by CD11b+ cells (regardless of the expression of CD68) in LMNCs of IRAK-M2/2 mice compared with WT B6 mice (Figure 4C and 4D). It is interesting that despite the increase of CD4+ T cells in LMNCs of IRAK-M2/2 mice after alcohol consumption, we did not find any obvious difference in pro-inflammatory cytokine production by these cells comparing the IRAK-M deficient and sufficient mice (data not shown). We also investigated other proinflammatory (TNFalpha, IL-12, IL-17) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines in LMNCs and did not find significant changes in any subset of LMN.