Ss of a compound’s classification as C- or N-based, requires

Ss of a compound’s classification as C- or N-based, requires nitrogen for enzymes involved in the metabolic pathways. The majority of nitrogen in a plant is contained in Rubisco, the primary enzyme in photosynthesis, which accounts for roughly 25 of leaf nitrogen in C3 plants. Rubisco content increases with leaf nitrogen and is sometimes, but not always, produced in excess of photosynthetic requirements as a means of nitrogen storage [64]. It is therefore possible that leaf nitrogen in P. macroloba is sufficiently limited, such that trade-offs between different cellular demands for nitrogen exist. In addition, flavan production decreased with presence of neighboring plants (higher nitrogen), following predictions of the CNBH and the GDBH that investments in C-based defenses decline as nitrogen availability increases. In the shade experiment, a positive correlation between growth and defense was present for flavans. This relationship changed in the full sun, and flavans were negatively correlated with biomass. Initially, it would seem the Emixustat (hydrochloride) web negative relationship is due to increased growth at high light. Biomass was greater, however, in shade grown plants while dark respiration and photosynthesis were higher in the sun. Pentaclethra macroloba is a shade-adapted plant, so the increase in respiration may result from metabolic processes necessary to avoid photoinhibition, and the trade-off with biomass may be related to an underlying relationship with respiration. Including dark respiration in the structural equation model forFigure 3. Interactions between experimental treatments and trade-offs in photosynthesis, growth, and defense production. Path diagrams showing causal buy Madecassoside relationships (single headed arrows) and correlations (double headed arrows) between competition, fertilizer, photosynthesis (Amax), flavans, saponins, and biomass in Pentaclethra macroloba seedlings grown in the shade (A; x2 = 0.8, df = 5, P = 0.98) or the sun (B; x2 = 0.02, df = 1, P = 0.89). Bullets indicate negative relationships and arrows indicate positive relationships. Numbers are the standardized parameter estimates for relationships between variables. All relationships were significant with t-values .1.96 except where smaller t-values are indicated. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047554.gsaponin production, and a negative relationship was also present between Amax and flavans in shade-grown plants. Flavans in shade-grown plants were also positively correlated with biomass, contrary to expectations of a growth-defense trade-off. Plants grown in the sun showed the opposite pattern, and flavans and biomass were negatively correlated. Perhaps full sunlight promoted increased growth (positive relationship between photosynthesis and biomass), creating demands on pathways of plant allocation that limited production of flavans. When the correlation between Amax and biomass was included in 1326631 the model for shadegrown plants, the relationship was negative, although weak (PE = 20.02), and the model fit less well. The shade plant model including the relationship between saponins and biomass also fit less well, and the correlation between saponins and biomass was negative (PE = 20.07). In summary, in sun-grown plant photosynthesis and biomass were positively correlated as were saponins and biomass. In the shade, both these relationships were negative. In contrast, flavans and biomass were negatively related in the sun, and their relationship was positive in the shade. Light therefore.Ss of a compound’s classification as C- or N-based, requires nitrogen for enzymes involved in the metabolic pathways. The majority of nitrogen in a plant is contained in Rubisco, the primary enzyme in photosynthesis, which accounts for roughly 25 of leaf nitrogen in C3 plants. Rubisco content increases with leaf nitrogen and is sometimes, but not always, produced in excess of photosynthetic requirements as a means of nitrogen storage [64]. It is therefore possible that leaf nitrogen in P. macroloba is sufficiently limited, such that trade-offs between different cellular demands for nitrogen exist. In addition, flavan production decreased with presence of neighboring plants (higher nitrogen), following predictions of the CNBH and the GDBH that investments in C-based defenses decline as nitrogen availability increases. In the shade experiment, a positive correlation between growth and defense was present for flavans. This relationship changed in the full sun, and flavans were negatively correlated with biomass. Initially, it would seem the negative relationship is due to increased growth at high light. Biomass was greater, however, in shade grown plants while dark respiration and photosynthesis were higher in the sun. Pentaclethra macroloba is a shade-adapted plant, so the increase in respiration may result from metabolic processes necessary to avoid photoinhibition, and the trade-off with biomass may be related to an underlying relationship with respiration. Including dark respiration in the structural equation model forFigure 3. Interactions between experimental treatments and trade-offs in photosynthesis, growth, and defense production. Path diagrams showing causal relationships (single headed arrows) and correlations (double headed arrows) between competition, fertilizer, photosynthesis (Amax), flavans, saponins, and biomass in Pentaclethra macroloba seedlings grown in the shade (A; x2 = 0.8, df = 5, P = 0.98) or the sun (B; x2 = 0.02, df = 1, P = 0.89). Bullets indicate negative relationships and arrows indicate positive relationships. Numbers are the standardized parameter estimates for relationships between variables. All relationships were significant with t-values .1.96 except where smaller t-values are indicated. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047554.gsaponin production, and a negative relationship was also present between Amax and flavans in shade-grown plants. Flavans in shade-grown plants were also positively correlated with biomass, contrary to expectations of a growth-defense trade-off. Plants grown in the sun showed the opposite pattern, and flavans and biomass were negatively correlated. Perhaps full sunlight promoted increased growth (positive relationship between photosynthesis and biomass), creating demands on pathways of plant allocation that limited production of flavans. When the correlation between Amax and biomass was included in 1326631 the model for shadegrown plants, the relationship was negative, although weak (PE = 20.02), and the model fit less well. The shade plant model including the relationship between saponins and biomass also fit less well, and the correlation between saponins and biomass was negative (PE = 20.07). In summary, in sun-grown plant photosynthesis and biomass were positively correlated as were saponins and biomass. In the shade, both these relationships were negative. In contrast, flavans and biomass were negatively related in the sun, and their relationship was positive in the shade. Light therefore.