Icularly difficult because of the small size of bacteria (sometimes less

Icularly difficult because of the small size of bacteria (sometimes less than 1m) and domains. 4.2. Yeast Yeast represents a powerful system to explore PM lipid and protein purchase PD150606 organization based on genetic approaches. The PM of S. cerevisiae is known to be organized as a patchwork of several protein domains [128]. Regarding lipid organization, studies using filipin have shown that the budding yeast PM contains ergosterol-purchase TF14016 enriched domains (Fig. 5b) that colocalize with the protein Sur7, a protein found in eisosomes [32]. Network-like lipid domains have also been shown at the cytosolic PM leaflet, by targeting PS and PIP2 with Lact-C2 and PH domains [128] (see Section 3.1.2). More recently, major redistribution of PIP2 into enriched membrane clusters upon osmotic stress has been clearly evidenced for both fission and budding yeast cells [166, 167]. Such PIP2 clusters are spatially organized by eisosomes, protein-based structures of the yeast PM which regulate activation of MAPK signal transduction through the organization of cortical lipid-based domains [166]. Interestingly, after perturbation of SL, sterol, PS or PIP2 levels, patchwork protein distribution is modified [128], suggesting a relation between proteins and lipids at the yeast PM domains. For more information of this subject, please see [168, 169]. In addition, other groups have suggested the existence of gel-like domains in yeast, but with no morphological evidence and thus no domain size estimation. For instance, fluorescence intensity and anisotropy decay analyses using trans-Parinaric acid (t-PnA) or 1,6diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) show reduced lateral heterogeneity in gel-like domains in yeast with low SL levels, suggesting an essential role of SLs in these domains [170, 171]. 4.3. Animal cells As mentioned in the Introduction Section, submicrometric lipid domains have sometimes been reported under non-physiological conditions, leading to intensified debate on their real existence in physiological conditions. For instance, submicrometric domains have been visualized in RBCs after alteration of membrane Cer and cholesterol contents upon treatment with PlcHR2, a toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibiting both phospholipase C and SMase activities [172], or methyl–cyclodextrin [36], respectively. A similar example was generated using CHO cells depleted of cholesterol [173]. Moreover, there are cases in which submicrometric domains have not been detected. Thus, whereas submicrometric domains enriched in SLs have been detected by SIMS at the fibroblast PM, cholesterol is uniformly distributed throughout [25, 151]. Likewise, using protein micropatterning combined with single-molecule tracking, Schutz and coll. have shown that GPI-anchored proteins do not reside in ordered domains at the PM of living cells [39]. However, lipid domains have been documented in other cases with reliable approaches. These were identified at the outer and/or inner PM leaflet of various cell types, using different tools and methods. A substantial, albeit non-exhaustive, list of examples isAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptProg Lipid Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 April 01.Carquin et al.Pagepresented in Table 1 and representative vital confocal images are shown in Fig. 5c-f. Our group focuses on human RBCs as a model of choice for the reasons mentioned at Section 3.3. Thus, by vital confocal imaging of RBCs partially spread onto poly-L-lysine-coated.Icularly difficult because of the small size of bacteria (sometimes less than 1m) and domains. 4.2. Yeast Yeast represents a powerful system to explore PM lipid and protein organization based on genetic approaches. The PM of S. cerevisiae is known to be organized as a patchwork of several protein domains [128]. Regarding lipid organization, studies using filipin have shown that the budding yeast PM contains ergosterol-enriched domains (Fig. 5b) that colocalize with the protein Sur7, a protein found in eisosomes [32]. Network-like lipid domains have also been shown at the cytosolic PM leaflet, by targeting PS and PIP2 with Lact-C2 and PH domains [128] (see Section 3.1.2). More recently, major redistribution of PIP2 into enriched membrane clusters upon osmotic stress has been clearly evidenced for both fission and budding yeast cells [166, 167]. Such PIP2 clusters are spatially organized by eisosomes, protein-based structures of the yeast PM which regulate activation of MAPK signal transduction through the organization of cortical lipid-based domains [166]. Interestingly, after perturbation of SL, sterol, PS or PIP2 levels, patchwork protein distribution is modified [128], suggesting a relation between proteins and lipids at the yeast PM domains. For more information of this subject, please see [168, 169]. In addition, other groups have suggested the existence of gel-like domains in yeast, but with no morphological evidence and thus no domain size estimation. For instance, fluorescence intensity and anisotropy decay analyses using trans-Parinaric acid (t-PnA) or 1,6diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) show reduced lateral heterogeneity in gel-like domains in yeast with low SL levels, suggesting an essential role of SLs in these domains [170, 171]. 4.3. Animal cells As mentioned in the Introduction Section, submicrometric lipid domains have sometimes been reported under non-physiological conditions, leading to intensified debate on their real existence in physiological conditions. For instance, submicrometric domains have been visualized in RBCs after alteration of membrane Cer and cholesterol contents upon treatment with PlcHR2, a toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibiting both phospholipase C and SMase activities [172], or methyl–cyclodextrin [36], respectively. A similar example was generated using CHO cells depleted of cholesterol [173]. Moreover, there are cases in which submicrometric domains have not been detected. Thus, whereas submicrometric domains enriched in SLs have been detected by SIMS at the fibroblast PM, cholesterol is uniformly distributed throughout [25, 151]. Likewise, using protein micropatterning combined with single-molecule tracking, Schutz and coll. have shown that GPI-anchored proteins do not reside in ordered domains at the PM of living cells [39]. However, lipid domains have been documented in other cases with reliable approaches. These were identified at the outer and/or inner PM leaflet of various cell types, using different tools and methods. A substantial, albeit non-exhaustive, list of examples isAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptProg Lipid Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 April 01.Carquin et al.Pagepresented in Table 1 and representative vital confocal images are shown in Fig. 5c-f. Our group focuses on human RBCs as a model of choice for the reasons mentioned at Section 3.3. Thus, by vital confocal imaging of RBCs partially spread onto poly-L-lysine-coated.