Ei on the infected monocytes, where it interacts with all the mid-A-stretch of host promoter and intronic Alu components (Zhu et al., 2009; Luo et al., 2010). It consists of 11 prospective tyrosine phosphorylation web pages as predicted by NetPhos 2.0. In an effort to determine the E. Eicosatetraynoic acid Activator chaffeensis tyrosineFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiologywww.frontiersin.orgDecember 2011 | Volume 1 | Report 22 |Wakeel et al.Ehrlichia TRPs and Ank200 are T1SS substratesphosphorylated proteins we performed Western blotting evaluation of uninfected and E. chaffeensis-infected THP-1 cell lysates with anti-pTyr monoclonal antibody (PY99). The Western blot evaluation showed that E. chaffeensis infection of THP-1 cells led to a major tyrosine phosphorylated protein at 200 kDa (Figure 4A). To confirm the protein identity, an Ank200 distinct antibody was used (Figure 4B). This 200 kDa protein was further detected by Western blot evaluation working with anti-Ank200 antibody in lysates of E. chaffeensis-infected THP-1 cells immunoprecipitated with anti-pTyr antibody and not in lysates of E. chaffeensis-infected THP-1 cells immunoprecipitated with typical mouse IgG confirming that the 200-kDa protein is tyrosine phosphorylated Ank200 (Figure 4C).Comparative biophysical and domain analysis of tyrosine phosphorylated Ank proteinsThe E. chaffeensis Ank200 along with a. phagocytophilum AnkA proteins have recently been the focus in the several research (McBride et al., 2003; Park et al., 2004; IJdo et al., 2007; Lin et al., 2007; Thomas and Fikrig, 2007; Garcia-Garcia et al., 2009; Zhu et al., 2009; Luo et al., 2010). The E. chaffeensis Ank200 and a. phagocytophilum AnkA proteins each include Ank repeats and each are tyrosine phosphorylated (this study, IJdo et al., 2007; Lin et al., 2007). Some functional similarities have been reported in between E. chaffeensis Ank200 as well as a. phagocytophilum AnkA, including translocation towards the host cell nucleus and DNA interactions (Park et al., 2004; Garcia-Garcia et al., 2009; Zhu et al., 2009). Applying the Cre recombinase reporter assay of A. tumefaciens a current study reported that AnkA is translocated by the VirB/D4-dependent T4SS in to the host cells (Lin et al., 2007). However, utilizing precisely the same Cre recombinase reporter assay, we found that Ank200 was not translocated by the VirB/D4-dependent T4SS, suggesting that Ank200 is translocated by an additional mechanism. Though Ank200 and AnkA seem functionally similar, they have no significant sequence homology as demonstrated by their sequence alignment (BLASTN), as well as have distinct biophysical properties, and as a result, seem to be distinctive in nature (Figure A1 in Appendix; Altschul et al., 1997). Nevertheless, a search of E. chaffeensis Ank200 orthologs in the Integrated Microbial Genomes database identified A. phagocytophilum AnkA as an ortholog of Ank200, but with a restricted (22 ) sequence similarity that is mainly located Seletracetam Description within the Ank domain-containing regions of each the proteins. Ank200 (1463 amino acids) is extra acidic (pI 4.9) withthe majority of Ank motifs localized for the central area, even though the tyrosine kinase, Src homology two (SH2), and Src homology 3 (SH3) domains are situated inside the N-terminus on the protein, which can be much more hydrophilic (Figure A1A in Appendix). In contrast, AnkA (1232 amino acids) is less acidic (pI six.1), the Ank domains are localized to two distinct domains (N-terminus and central area) although the majority of tyrosine kinase, SH2, and SH3 domains have been inside the hydrophilic C-terminus of the prot.