Ei of the infected monocytes, where it interacts with all the mid-A-stretch of host promoter and intronic Alu elements (Zhu et al., 2009; Luo et al., 2010). It includes 11 potential tyrosine phosphorylation internet sites as predicted by NetPhos 2.0. In order to identify the E. chaffeensis tyrosineFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiologywww.frontiersin.orgDecember 2011 | Volume 1 | Report 22 |Wakeel et al.Ehrlichia TRPs and 159351-69-6 Protocol Ank200 are T1SS substratesphosphorylated proteins we performed Western blotting analysis of uninfected and E. chaffeensis-infected THP-1 cell lysates with anti-pTyr monoclonal antibody (PY99). The Western blot analysis showed that E. chaffeensis infection of THP-1 cells led to a major tyrosine phosphorylated protein at 200 kDa (Figure 4A). To confirm the protein identity, an Ank200 specific antibody was applied (Figure 4B). This 200 kDa protein was additional detected by Western blot evaluation applying anti-Ank200 antibody in lysates of E. chaffeensis-infected THP-1 cells immunoprecipitated with anti-pTyr antibody and not in lysates of E. chaffeensis-infected THP-1 cells immunoprecipitated with standard mouse IgG confirming that the 200-kDa protein is tyrosine phosphorylated Ank200 (Figure 4C).Comparative biophysical and domain analysis of tyrosine phosphorylated Ank proteinsThe E. chaffeensis Ank200 plus a. NV03 Description phagocytophilum AnkA proteins have not too long ago been the focus on the numerous research (McBride et al., 2003; Park et al., 2004; IJdo et al., 2007; Lin et al., 2007; Thomas and Fikrig, 2007; Garcia-Garcia et al., 2009; Zhu et al., 2009; Luo et al., 2010). The E. chaffeensis Ank200 in addition to a. phagocytophilum AnkA proteins each include Ank repeats and both are tyrosine phosphorylated (this study, IJdo et al., 2007; Lin et al., 2007). Some functional similarities happen to be reported among E. chaffeensis Ank200 and a. phagocytophilum AnkA, which includes translocation for the host cell nucleus and DNA interactions (Park et al., 2004; Garcia-Garcia et al., 2009; Zhu et al., 2009). Utilizing the Cre recombinase reporter assay of A. tumefaciens a current study reported that AnkA is translocated by the VirB/D4-dependent T4SS in to the host cells (Lin et al., 2007). However, using precisely the same Cre recombinase reporter assay, we located that Ank200 was not translocated by the VirB/D4-dependent T4SS, suggesting that Ank200 is translocated by yet another mechanism. Though Ank200 and AnkA seem functionally similar, they have no important sequence homology as demonstrated by their sequence alignment (BLASTN), and also have distinctive biophysical properties, and therefore, seem to be unique in nature (Figure A1 in Appendix; Altschul et al., 1997). Having said that, a search of E. chaffeensis Ank200 orthologs inside the Integrated Microbial Genomes database identified A. phagocytophilum AnkA as an ortholog of Ank200, but with a restricted (22 ) sequence similarity that’s mostly located in the Ank domain-containing regions of both the proteins. Ank200 (1463 amino acids) is a lot more acidic (pI four.9) withthe majority of Ank motifs localized to the central region, whilst the tyrosine kinase, Src homology 2 (SH2), and Src homology three (SH3) domains are positioned in the N-terminus in the protein, which can be more hydrophilic (Figure A1A in Appendix). In contrast, AnkA (1232 amino acids) is much less acidic (pI six.1), the Ank domains are localized to two distinct domains (N-terminus and central region) while the majority of tyrosine kinase, SH2, and SH3 domains have been inside the hydrophilic C-terminus of your prot.