Ei in the infected monocytes, exactly where it interacts with all the mid-A-stretch of host promoter and intronic Alu elements (Zhu et al., 2009; Luo et al., 2010). It contains 11 potential tyrosine phosphorylation web-sites as predicted by NetPhos 2.0. So that you can identify the E. chaffeensis tyrosineFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiologywww.frontiersin.orgDecember 2011 | Volume 1 | Short article 22 |Wakeel et al.Ehrlichia TRPs and Ank200 are T1SS substratesphosphorylated 192441-08-0 Autophagy proteins we performed Western blotting 85622-93-1 Cancer analysis of uninfected and E. chaffeensis-infected THP-1 cell lysates with anti-pTyr monoclonal antibody (PY99). The Western blot analysis showed that E. chaffeensis infection of THP-1 cells led to a significant tyrosine phosphorylated protein at 200 kDa (Figure 4A). To confirm the protein identity, an Ank200 particular antibody was made use of (Figure 4B). This 200 kDa protein was additional detected by Western blot evaluation applying anti-Ank200 antibody in lysates of E. chaffeensis-infected THP-1 cells immunoprecipitated with anti-pTyr antibody and not in lysates of E. chaffeensis-infected THP-1 cells immunoprecipitated with standard mouse IgG confirming that the 200-kDa protein is tyrosine phosphorylated Ank200 (Figure 4C).Comparative biophysical and domain evaluation of tyrosine phosphorylated Ank proteinsThe E. chaffeensis Ank200 plus a. phagocytophilum AnkA proteins have lately been the focus with the numerous research (McBride et al., 2003; Park et al., 2004; IJdo et al., 2007; Lin et al., 2007; Thomas and Fikrig, 2007; Garcia-Garcia et al., 2009; Zhu et al., 2009; Luo et al., 2010). The E. chaffeensis Ank200 in addition to a. phagocytophilum AnkA proteins each include Ank repeats and both are tyrosine phosphorylated (this study, IJdo et al., 2007; Lin et al., 2007). Some functional similarities have already been reported in between E. chaffeensis Ank200 and a. phagocytophilum AnkA, like translocation for the host cell nucleus and DNA interactions (Park et al., 2004; Garcia-Garcia et al., 2009; Zhu et al., 2009). Using the Cre recombinase reporter assay of A. tumefaciens a current study reported that AnkA is translocated by the VirB/D4-dependent T4SS in to the host cells (Lin et al., 2007). However, utilizing the exact same Cre recombinase reporter assay, we located that Ank200 was not translocated by the VirB/D4-dependent T4SS, suggesting that Ank200 is translocated by a different mechanism. Though Ank200 and AnkA seem functionally comparable, they’ve no important sequence homology as demonstrated by their sequence alignment (BLASTN), as well as have distinctive biophysical properties, and hence, seem to be distinctive in nature (Figure A1 in Appendix; Altschul et al., 1997). Having said that, a search of E. chaffeensis Ank200 orthologs inside the Integrated Microbial Genomes database identified A. phagocytophilum AnkA as an ortholog of Ank200, but with a limited (22 ) sequence similarity that is certainly mostly situated within the Ank domain-containing regions of both the proteins. Ank200 (1463 amino acids) is far more acidic (pI four.9) withthe majority of Ank motifs localized to the central region, although the tyrosine kinase, Src homology two (SH2), and Src homology three (SH3) domains are positioned in the N-terminus on the protein, which can be a lot more hydrophilic (Figure A1A in Appendix). In contrast, AnkA (1232 amino acids) is significantly less acidic (pI six.1), the Ank domains are localized to two distinct domains (N-terminus and central region) while the majority of tyrosine kinase, SH2, and SH3 domains were in the hydrophilic C-terminus of the prot.