Ei of the infected monocytes, exactly where it interacts together with the mid-A-stretch of host promoter and intronic Alu components (Zhu et al., 2009; Luo et al., 2010). It includes 11 prospective tyrosine phosphorylation internet sites as predicted by NetPhos two.0. In order to recognize the E. chaffeensis tyrosineFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiologywww.frontiersin.orgDecember 2011 | Volume 1 | Report 22 |Wakeel et al.Ehrlichia TRPs and Ank200 are T1SS substratesphosphorylated proteins we performed Western blotting analysis of uninfected and E. chaffeensis-infected THP-1 cell lysates with anti-pTyr Danofloxacin Description monoclonal antibody (PY99). The Western blot analysis showed that E. chaffeensis infection of THP-1 cells led to a significant tyrosine phosphorylated protein at 200 kDa (Figure 4A). To confirm the protein identity, an Ank200 specific antibody was employed (Figure 4B). This 200 kDa protein was additional detected by Western blot analysis employing anti-Ank200 antibody in lysates of E. chaffeensis-infected THP-1 cells immunoprecipitated with anti-pTyr antibody and not in lysates of E. chaffeensis-infected THP-1 cells immunoprecipitated with regular mouse IgG confirming that the 200-kDa protein is tyrosine phosphorylated Ank200 (Figure 4C).Comparative biophysical and domain analysis of tyrosine phosphorylated Ank proteinsThe E. chaffeensis Ank200 in addition to a. phagocytophilum AnkA proteins have not too long ago been the concentrate on the quite a few research (McBride et al., 2003; Park et al., 2004; IJdo et al., 2007; Lin et al., 2007; Thomas and Fikrig, 2007; Garcia-Garcia et al., 2009; Zhu et al., 2009; Luo et al., 2010). The E. chaffeensis Ank200 along with a. phagocytophilum AnkA proteins each contain Ank repeats and both are tyrosine phosphorylated (this study, IJdo et al., 2007; Lin et al., 2007). Some functional similarities have been reported among E. chaffeensis Ank200 as well as a. phagocytophilum AnkA, like translocation to the host cell nucleus and DNA interactions (Park et al., 2004; Garcia-Garcia et al., 2009; Zhu et al., 2009). Utilizing the Cre recombinase reporter assay of A. tumefaciens a recent study reported that AnkA is translocated by the VirB/D4-dependent T4SS in to the host cells (Lin et al., 2007). Nonetheless, using exactly the same Cre recombinase reporter assay, we identified that Ank200 was not translocated by the VirB/D4-dependent T4SS, suggesting that Ank200 is translocated by another mechanism. Though Ank200 and AnkA appear functionally similar, they’ve no important sequence homology as demonstrated by their sequence alignment (BLASTN), as well as have distinctive biophysical properties, and thus, seem to become unique in nature (Figure A1 in Appendix; Altschul et al., 1997). Nevertheless, a search of E. chaffeensis Ank200 orthologs within the Integrated Microbial Genomes database identified A. phagocytophilum AnkA as an ortholog of Ank200, but having a restricted (22 ) sequence similarity that may be mostly positioned in the Ank domain-containing regions of each the proteins. Ank200 (1463 amino acids) is a lot more acidic (pI 4.9) withthe majority of Ank motifs localized for the central area, whilst the tyrosine kinase, Src homology two (SH2), and Src homology three (SH3) domains are located within the N-terminus with the protein, which is additional hydrophilic (Figure A1A in Appendix). In contrast, AnkA (1232 amino acids) is much less acidic (pI 6.1), the Ank domains are localized to two distinct domains (N-terminus and central region) although the majority of tyrosine kinase, SH2, and SH3 domains have been within the hydrophilic C-terminus of your prot.