Fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibodies have been applied for two h. The sections were again rinsed with PBT for many times, mounted (Vectashield Mounting Medium with DAPI; Vector Laboratories, Inc., Burlingame, CA), and viewed below a fluorescence microscope (Axio Observer; Leica) or even a confocal laser scanning microscope (Leica LSM5 PASCAL). The pictures have been processed using Adobe Photoshop. 2.4. Cell Culture. Mouse podocytes, conditionally immortalized having a temperature-sensitive variant with the SV40 large T-antigen, have been kindly supplied by Dr. Peter Mundel (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY, USA). The preparation and characterization of those cells have been described elsewhere . Podocytes had been maintained in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium (Gibco/Life Technologies, Grand Islands, NY, USA) supplemented with ten fetal bovine serum (FBS; Sigma Aldrich), one hundred U/mL penicillin, and one hundred U/mL streptomycin (Sigma Aldrich). To propagate podocytes, cells were cultivated at 33 C and incubated with 10 U/mL of murine recombinant interferon (Pepro Tech EC Ltd, London, UK) to Leptin Proteins manufacturer enhance the expression from the T-antigen (permissive conditions). To induce differentiation, podocytes were cultured at 37 C without the need of -interferon in RPMI 1640. Cells were cultured below nonpermissive conditions for no less than 11 d before they were utilized in the experiments. The medium was changed each and every 3 d to induce complete differentiation. Cells at passages 12 to 18 had been employed for the experiments in this study. two.5. Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction. The expression of mRNA in podocytes was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Total RNA was extracted using an RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions. Following treatment with DNase, 1 g of total RNA was reversely transcribed using oligo dT primer, pd(T)128 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA), to prevent genomic contamination. The cDNA was generated utilizing SuperScript III Reverse Transcriptase (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Gene-specific oligonucleotides for the PCR analyses have been made based on the predicted cDNA sequences (http://www.ensembl.org/). The PCR was performed within a 25 L PCR reaction containing 1 L of complementary DNA (cDNA), Taq reaction buffer2. Materials and Methods2.1. Reagents. Telmisartan was obtained from Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan). Candesartan was bought from Tronto Research Chemical substances (North York, Canada). Angiotensin II was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). Recombinant human TGF-1 (#240-B) and recombinant human VEGF-A (#293-VE) were purchased from R D systems (Minneapolis, MN). GSI was purchased from Calbiochem (San Diego, CA). Hoechst 33342 was from Dojindo Fc alpha/mu Receptor Proteins MedChemExpress Laboratories (Kumamoto, Japan). 2.2. Animals. Male heterozygous Ins2 Akita diabetic mice (C57BL/6) and C57BL/6 controls have been obtained from Japan SLC Inc. (Shizuoka, Japan). Eight-week-old Akita mice and control mice received telmisartan (five mg g-1 ay-1) or no remedy for 15 weeks (n = eight in each group). The blood glucose level, body weight, blood pressure, and urinary albumin excretion have been measured just about every two weeks. The blood glucose level was examined using Medisafe-Mini (TERUMO Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), and the blood pressure was determined by the tail cuff strategy applying Softron BP-98A (Softron, Tokyo, Japan). To be able to estimate albuminuria, mice have been individually housed in metabolic cages for 24 h. Urine was collect.