Ty method [19]. Next, a training dataset was constructed by manually applying single wavelength corrections to approximately 200 sub-images of the phase data, selected for the appearance 10781694 of target and T cells of interest. This training datasetMass Changes During CTL Target Cell Killingwas used in a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to identify pixels which lie on the boundary of phase-wrapped regions, based on 16 sets of image statistics, including the raw image itself, the computed intensity image, and the results of various edge-finding filters applied to the wrapped phase image. LDA was followed by genetic optimization to refine the LDA results and watershed algorithm thresholds used in determining the boundaries of phasewrapped regions. Regions within the boundaries determined by the watershed algorithm applied to the final LDA result were shifted (corrected) by a phase shift of one wavelength and median filtered with a kernel size of 3.TCR with specificity toward MART1 [15]. Target cells expressing MART1 and antigen-defined CD8+ enriched T cells were cocultured in a live-cell observation chamber on the LCI stage and imaged for a period of 18 h. (Figure 1A). The observation chamber was temperature controlled with pH maintained by continuous perfusion of media equilibrated at 8 CO2. Following image collection, the light phase shift data was corrected for phase wrapping errors which are caused by the integer wavelength ambiguity inherent in quantitative phase imaging [19]. The result is a map of phase buy NT-157 shifts across each cell that can be converted into a map of local dry mass density (Figure 1B). The total dry mass of a cell is quantified as the sum of the local densities [12,14,21]: ?m k wldA,Mass TrackingSingle cell mass measurements were performed using a custom script implemented in Matlab (Mathworks). Briefly, phasecorrected images were Gaussian low pass-filtered before image segmentation based on Otsu thresholding. Finally, objects identified by image segmentation were tracked using the particle tracking code adapted for Matlab by Daniel Blair and Eric Dufresne, based on the particle tracking algorithm by Grier et al. [20]. Cell area was determined using a local adaptive threshold based on a 200 pixel neighborhood in the quantitative phase image. ??StatisticsStatistical analysis was performed using a two-tailed Welch’s Student T test with unequal variances and sample sizes.Results LCI for quantitative imaging of T cell mediated cytotoxicityWe developed a model system for analyzing cytotoxicity Verubecestat events by establishing the antigen specificity of healthy human donor CD8+ enriched lymphocytes against HLA matched target cell lines. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were transduced with an F5 anti-MART1 TCR, which is a high affinitywhere m is cell dry mass, Ql is the measured phase shift, k is the mass conversion factor, and A is projected area. The mass conversion factor [21,22], which is a measure of the change in density per unit change in refractive index (Dr/Dn), is taken as k = 5.56 pg/mm3 [14]. This parameter, k, is measured as a change in refractive index relative to the refractive index of water, Therefore, the cell mass measured in this manner is the cell dry mass, or the mass of everything within the cell other than water. With this equation, the measured dry mass of the activated T cell in Figure 1B is 240 pg, the target cell mass is 840 pg and the unactivated T cells have an average dry mass of 65 pg.Antigen-spec.Ty method [19]. Next, a training dataset was constructed by manually applying single wavelength corrections to approximately 200 sub-images of the phase data, selected for the appearance 10781694 of target and T cells of interest. This training datasetMass Changes During CTL Target Cell Killingwas used in a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to identify pixels which lie on the boundary of phase-wrapped regions, based on 16 sets of image statistics, including the raw image itself, the computed intensity image, and the results of various edge-finding filters applied to the wrapped phase image. LDA was followed by genetic optimization to refine the LDA results and watershed algorithm thresholds used in determining the boundaries of phasewrapped regions. Regions within the boundaries determined by the watershed algorithm applied to the final LDA result were shifted (corrected) by a phase shift of one wavelength and median filtered with a kernel size of 3.TCR with specificity toward MART1 [15]. Target cells expressing MART1 and antigen-defined CD8+ enriched T cells were cocultured in a live-cell observation chamber on the LCI stage and imaged for a period of 18 h. (Figure 1A). The observation chamber was temperature controlled with pH maintained by continuous perfusion of media equilibrated at 8 CO2. Following image collection, the light phase shift data was corrected for phase wrapping errors which are caused by the integer wavelength ambiguity inherent in quantitative phase imaging [19]. The result is a map of phase shifts across each cell that can be converted into a map of local dry mass density (Figure 1B). The total dry mass of a cell is quantified as the sum of the local densities [12,14,21]: ?m k wldA,Mass TrackingSingle cell mass measurements were performed using a custom script implemented in Matlab (Mathworks). Briefly, phasecorrected images were Gaussian low pass-filtered before image segmentation based on Otsu thresholding. Finally, objects identified by image segmentation were tracked using the particle tracking code adapted for Matlab by Daniel Blair and Eric Dufresne, based on the particle tracking algorithm by Grier et al. [20]. Cell area was determined using a local adaptive threshold based on a 200 pixel neighborhood in the quantitative phase image. ??StatisticsStatistical analysis was performed using a two-tailed Welch’s Student T test with unequal variances and sample sizes.Results LCI for quantitative imaging of T cell mediated cytotoxicityWe developed a model system for analyzing cytotoxicity events by establishing the antigen specificity of healthy human donor CD8+ enriched lymphocytes against HLA matched target cell lines. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were transduced with an F5 anti-MART1 TCR, which is a high affinitywhere m is cell dry mass, Ql is the measured phase shift, k is the mass conversion factor, and A is projected area. The mass conversion factor [21,22], which is a measure of the change in density per unit change in refractive index (Dr/Dn), is taken as k = 5.56 pg/mm3 [14]. This parameter, k, is measured as a change in refractive index relative to the refractive index of water, Therefore, the cell mass measured in this manner is the cell dry mass, or the mass of everything within the cell other than water. With this equation, the measured dry mass of the activated T cell in Figure 1B is 240 pg, the target cell mass is 840 pg and the unactivated T cells have an average dry mass of 65 pg.Antigen-spec.