Ting: 17.061.8 pA; Decay time constant: control: 1.660.1 ms vs. fasting: 1.460.1 ms; p.

Ting: 17.061.8 pA; Decay time constant: control: 1.660.1 ms vs. fasting: 1.460.1 ms; p.0.05; n = 25 neurons and 16 neurons, respectively). Taken together these data indicate that the decreased inhibitory tone may lead to a net increase in the mean resting membraneFigure 5. Overnight food deprivation does not alter TTX resistant inhibitory or excitatory Fexinidazole site synaptic currents recorded in DMH cholinergic neurons. A. Examples of electrophysiological recordings showing miniature (TTX resistant) GABAergic synaptic currents in DMH cholinergic neurons following control vs. overnight BI-78D3 biological activity fasting conditions B and C. Summary plots show that fasting did not alter miniature GABAergic synaptic transmission (control: n = 21 neurons, Fasting: n = 15 neurons). D. Pooled data showing no difference 23977191 in the frequency or amplitude of miniature IPSCS recorded in DMH cholinergic neurons (Filled circle, control; open circle, fasting). E. There was no change in the decay time constants of miniature IPSCs recorded in DMH cholinergic neurons. F. Sample recording traces showing miniature glutamatergic synaptic transmission (mEPSCs). G, H, I and J. Pooled data show that overnight fasting did not change the frequency, amplitude and decay time constant of miniature EPSCs (n = 31 neurons, Fasting: n = 24 neurons; Filled circle, control; open circle, fasting; control). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060828.gDMH Cholinergic Neuronspotential and increased activity of Chat-positive neurons in the DMH following overnight food deprivation. These parameters are likely to underlie the observed induction of c-fos expression in cholinergic neurons.Overnight Fasting Alters Inhibitory Tone to Cholinergic Neurons via a TTX Sensitive MechanismWe further investigated the mechanism by which overnight fasting decreases inhibitory tone by including the action potential inhibitor – TTX – in the aCSF solution to block neuronal network activity. Under these experimental conditions, we found that overnight fasting was without effect on all parameters tested. Thus, neither the frequency nor amplitude of the miniature IPSCs differed between the control and overnight fasting (Fig. 5A-E; Frequency: Control: 1.060.2 Hz vs. Fasting: 0.860.1 Hz; Amplitude: Control: 70.067.2 pA vs. Fasting: 64.564.5 pA; Control: tfast: 7.160.3 ms, tslow: 23.661.8 ms, Fasting: tfast: 6.760.6 ms, tslow: 21.061.3 ms; p.0.05; n = 21 neurons and n = 15 neurons, respectively). Likewise, overnight fasting had no effect on any parameters of miniature EPSCs. (Fig. 5F-J; Frequency: Control: 0.260.1 Hz vs. Fasting: 0.460.1 Hz; Amplitude: Control: 12.260.5 pA vs. Fasting: 13.660.5 pA; Decay time constant: Control: 1.960.2 ms vs. Fasting: 1.660.1 ms; p.0.05; n = 31 neurons and 24 neurons, respectively). These data indicate that the availability of nutrients regulates superthreshold activation of GABAergic inputs to cholinergic DMH neurons, thereby indirectly controlling their excitability.DiscussionThe current study provides physiological evidence that a subpopulation of DMH neurons are cholinergic and that GABAergic inhibitory inputs to these cholinergic neurons are modulated by the availability of nutrients. Overnight food deprivation induced cfos expression in cholinergic neurons in the DMH, which was associated with an increased baseline resting membrane potential. In addition, GABAergic, but not glutamatergic, synaptic transmission to cholinergic neurons was significantly diminished following overnight food deprivation. The increased e.Ting: 17.061.8 pA; Decay time constant: control: 1.660.1 ms vs. fasting: 1.460.1 ms; p.0.05; n = 25 neurons and 16 neurons, respectively). Taken together these data indicate that the decreased inhibitory tone may lead to a net increase in the mean resting membraneFigure 5. Overnight food deprivation does not alter TTX resistant inhibitory or excitatory synaptic currents recorded in DMH cholinergic neurons. A. Examples of electrophysiological recordings showing miniature (TTX resistant) GABAergic synaptic currents in DMH cholinergic neurons following control vs. overnight fasting conditions B and C. Summary plots show that fasting did not alter miniature GABAergic synaptic transmission (control: n = 21 neurons, Fasting: n = 15 neurons). D. Pooled data showing no difference 23977191 in the frequency or amplitude of miniature IPSCS recorded in DMH cholinergic neurons (Filled circle, control; open circle, fasting). E. There was no change in the decay time constants of miniature IPSCs recorded in DMH cholinergic neurons. F. Sample recording traces showing miniature glutamatergic synaptic transmission (mEPSCs). G, H, I and J. Pooled data show that overnight fasting did not change the frequency, amplitude and decay time constant of miniature EPSCs (n = 31 neurons, Fasting: n = 24 neurons; Filled circle, control; open circle, fasting; control). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060828.gDMH Cholinergic Neuronspotential and increased activity of Chat-positive neurons in the DMH following overnight food deprivation. These parameters are likely to underlie the observed induction of c-fos expression in cholinergic neurons.Overnight Fasting Alters Inhibitory Tone to Cholinergic Neurons via a TTX Sensitive MechanismWe further investigated the mechanism by which overnight fasting decreases inhibitory tone by including the action potential inhibitor – TTX – in the aCSF solution to block neuronal network activity. Under these experimental conditions, we found that overnight fasting was without effect on all parameters tested. Thus, neither the frequency nor amplitude of the miniature IPSCs differed between the control and overnight fasting (Fig. 5A-E; Frequency: Control: 1.060.2 Hz vs. Fasting: 0.860.1 Hz; Amplitude: Control: 70.067.2 pA vs. Fasting: 64.564.5 pA; Control: tfast: 7.160.3 ms, tslow: 23.661.8 ms, Fasting: tfast: 6.760.6 ms, tslow: 21.061.3 ms; p.0.05; n = 21 neurons and n = 15 neurons, respectively). Likewise, overnight fasting had no effect on any parameters of miniature EPSCs. (Fig. 5F-J; Frequency: Control: 0.260.1 Hz vs. Fasting: 0.460.1 Hz; Amplitude: Control: 12.260.5 pA vs. Fasting: 13.660.5 pA; Decay time constant: Control: 1.960.2 ms vs. Fasting: 1.660.1 ms; p.0.05; n = 31 neurons and 24 neurons, respectively). These data indicate that the availability of nutrients regulates superthreshold activation of GABAergic inputs to cholinergic DMH neurons, thereby indirectly controlling their excitability.DiscussionThe current study provides physiological evidence that a subpopulation of DMH neurons are cholinergic and that GABAergic inhibitory inputs to these cholinergic neurons are modulated by the availability of nutrients. Overnight food deprivation induced cfos expression in cholinergic neurons in the DMH, which was associated with an increased baseline resting membrane potential. In addition, GABAergic, but not glutamatergic, synaptic transmission to cholinergic neurons was significantly diminished following overnight food deprivation. The increased e.