S observed for Proto9. Studies on the influence of the CAB

S observed for Proto9. Studies on the influence of the CAB domain on the activity of the ferrochelatase of Acetovanillone site Synechocystis 6803 have been performed previously [32]. The authors showed that removal of the CAB domain including the linker region inactivates the recombinant protein [19], however, in cyanobacterial crude extracts, removal of the CAB domain only was shown to be dispensable for activity, but important for dimerization [32]. Monomeric and dimeric forms of the enzyme showed BIBS39 web similar activities [32]. In our study, the presence of the CAB-domain affected FeCh activity mostly by lowering the KM of Proto9 and the turnover number kcat. Strikingly, kcat was much higher for FeChD347 than for the full length FeCh. These results are in agreement with data obtained from a study on a Synechocystis 6803 FeChD347 mutant, which contains more heme, but has a decreased Proto9 pool [32]. Membranes isolated from this mutant have higher ferrochelatase activity than membranes isolated from the wild type [32]. It seems that the CAB-domain of ferrochelatase regulates the Proto9 flux by decreasing its consumption through the heme-branch in favor of the Chl-branch. Indeed, increased amount of chlorophyllide (Chlide) and, less pronounced, of Chl were observed in the FeChD347 mutant [32]. However, the exact regulation mechanism is unknown and other molecules interacting with this region might regulate the enzyme activity by changing its structure or orientation. It was speculated that free Chl may bind to the CAB domain and up-regulate its activity [18,40]. Here, our detailed enzymological studies led to the conclusion that activity is decreased in the presence of Chl a or a pigment mix from Synechocystis 6803, however this decline of activity seems to be independent of the CAB domain. Binding of Chl to FeCh or FeChD347 could not be observed using FRET, as it has been done previously for the other SCPs [29]. Comparing enzyme activity with ferrochelatases from other species, FeChD347 is similar to murine ferrochelatase except for higher Proto9 affinity (Table 3). FeCh is similar to yeast 1407003 ferrochelatase regarding Proto9 affinity, but displays lower metal ion affinity and turnover number. To some extent these observed differences can be explained by variations in assay conditions andFerrochelatase Refolding and Kineticsother enzyme-specific requirements. Enzyme kinetic parameters of FeCh from Synechocystis 6803 have not been estimated before this study. However, FeCh purified from Synechocystis 6803 was shown to have a specific activity of 6.5 nmol/min/mg [19], a value comparable to the 17 nmol/min/mg in our studies on refolded or co-expressed recombinant enzymes.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: PS CF. Performed the experiments: PS TT MH. Analyzed the data: PS TT MH CF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CF. Wrote the paper: PS CF.
Endometrial cancer is the seventh most common cancer among women worldwide. 1317923 An estimated of 287,100 women were diagnosed with endometrial cancer in 2011 [1]. Many studies have confirmed that genetic predisposition and environmental factors are involved in the etiology of endometrial cancer [2,3]. However, the interaction between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility remains to be elucidated. Functionally relevant polymorphisms in genes involved in the sex hormone metabolic pathway may alter the exposure to exogenous sex hormones and affect the risks in endometrial cancer development [.S observed for Proto9. Studies on the influence of the CAB domain on the activity of the ferrochelatase of Synechocystis 6803 have been performed previously [32]. The authors showed that removal of the CAB domain including the linker region inactivates the recombinant protein [19], however, in cyanobacterial crude extracts, removal of the CAB domain only was shown to be dispensable for activity, but important for dimerization [32]. Monomeric and dimeric forms of the enzyme showed similar activities [32]. In our study, the presence of the CAB-domain affected FeCh activity mostly by lowering the KM of Proto9 and the turnover number kcat. Strikingly, kcat was much higher for FeChD347 than for the full length FeCh. These results are in agreement with data obtained from a study on a Synechocystis 6803 FeChD347 mutant, which contains more heme, but has a decreased Proto9 pool [32]. Membranes isolated from this mutant have higher ferrochelatase activity than membranes isolated from the wild type [32]. It seems that the CAB-domain of ferrochelatase regulates the Proto9 flux by decreasing its consumption through the heme-branch in favor of the Chl-branch. Indeed, increased amount of chlorophyllide (Chlide) and, less pronounced, of Chl were observed in the FeChD347 mutant [32]. However, the exact regulation mechanism is unknown and other molecules interacting with this region might regulate the enzyme activity by changing its structure or orientation. It was speculated that free Chl may bind to the CAB domain and up-regulate its activity [18,40]. Here, our detailed enzymological studies led to the conclusion that activity is decreased in the presence of Chl a or a pigment mix from Synechocystis 6803, however this decline of activity seems to be independent of the CAB domain. Binding of Chl to FeCh or FeChD347 could not be observed using FRET, as it has been done previously for the other SCPs [29]. Comparing enzyme activity with ferrochelatases from other species, FeChD347 is similar to murine ferrochelatase except for higher Proto9 affinity (Table 3). FeCh is similar to yeast 1407003 ferrochelatase regarding Proto9 affinity, but displays lower metal ion affinity and turnover number. To some extent these observed differences can be explained by variations in assay conditions andFerrochelatase Refolding and Kineticsother enzyme-specific requirements. Enzyme kinetic parameters of FeCh from Synechocystis 6803 have not been estimated before this study. However, FeCh purified from Synechocystis 6803 was shown to have a specific activity of 6.5 nmol/min/mg [19], a value comparable to the 17 nmol/min/mg in our studies on refolded or co-expressed recombinant enzymes.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: PS CF. Performed the experiments: PS TT MH. Analyzed the data: PS TT MH CF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CF. Wrote the paper: PS CF.
Endometrial cancer is the seventh most common cancer among women worldwide. 1317923 An estimated of 287,100 women were diagnosed with endometrial cancer in 2011 [1]. Many studies have confirmed that genetic predisposition and environmental factors are involved in the etiology of endometrial cancer [2,3]. However, the interaction between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility remains to be elucidated. Functionally relevant polymorphisms in genes involved in the sex hormone metabolic pathway may alter the exposure to exogenous sex hormones and affect the risks in endometrial cancer development [.