Counted, then multiplying this number by 25 (which assumes an average number

Counted, then multiplying this number by 25 (which assumes an average number of 7500 leukocytes per ml whole blood). Hemoglobin levels were measured again 72 hours later. Uncomplicated falciparum malaria was defined by fever (axillary temperature 37.5uC, or history of fever in the previous 24 hours) in the presence of any asexual P. falciparum density with no symptoms or signs of severe malaria or other etiologies of febrile illness discernible by history taking and physical examination. We treated these children with artesunate 4 mg/kg plus amodiaquine 10 mg/kg, given orally, for 3 consecutive days (days 0, 1, and 2) and confirmed they were aparasitemic on day 3. Children with uncomplicated malaria and P. falciparum density 100,000/ml whole blood were treated as for severe malaria. Severe P. falciparum malaria was defined by the presence of any parasite density plus any one of the following: coma (defined as Blantyre coma score #2), convulsions (witnessed by the study investigator), severe prostration, severe anemia (hemoglobin #5 g/dl), respiratory distress (deep acidotic breathing), hypoglycemia (serum glucose #40 mg/dl), jaundice/icterus, shock (systolic blood pressure #50 mmHg, rapid pulse, cool extremities), cessation of eating and drinking, and repetitive vomiting. All children diagnosed with cerebral malaria met the criterion of coma, had neither hypoglycemia nor convulsions, and responded clinically to antimalarial therapy alone; ocular fundoscopy was not performed. Children with severe malaria were treated with artesunate, given intravenously, followed by the drug regimen for uncomplicated malaria when the child was able to take oral Pentagastrin medication.Plasma collectionIn May 2008, before the malaria season, we obtained 2?0 ml 374913-63-0 web venous blood from a sub-cohort of 162 children aged 2?4 years who were healthy and aparasitemic (thick blood film negative for P. falciparum). During the 2008 malaria season, we obtained 2?10 ml venous blood from all children in the cohort who developed malaria, at each episode and prior to antimalarial drug administration. We collected all blood samples into sodiumUric Acid and Malaria PathogenesisTable 1. Demographic, parasitological and biochemical parameters, stratified by clinical presentation.aNCSMc n = 24 p-valued NCSM vs. UM p-valued CM vs. UMParameterbUM n =Fold-change (95 CI) NCSM/UMCM n=Fold-change (95 CI) CM/UMmales49.54.1.20e (0.52?.89)0.6823f33.0.51e (0.11?.17)0.5040fAge (years)5 (3?)6 (3?) 22888 (6975?6012) 11.0 (8.9?2.2) 9.9 (8.4?0.8)1.00 (0.80?.50) 3.00 (1.38?.92) 1.03 (0.95?.10) 0.94 (0.87?.01)0.1 (0.875?)0.25 (0.17?.40) 5.77 (1.70?2.7) 0.91 (0.77?.06) 0.76 (0.67?.86),0.Parasite density 8600 (/ml) (787.5?6150) Hb level at 0 hours (g/dl) 10.5 (9.3?1.6) Hb level at 72 hours (g/dl) 10.2 (9.1?1.4) n = 451 Creatinine (mg/ 0.344 dl) (0.281?.423) n = 466 Uric acid (mg/dl) 4.60 (3.84?.39) n =a0.34350 (10300?38150)0.0.9.0 (7.6?2.0)0.0.7.5 (6.7?.1)0.0.412 (0.289?.484) n = 23 5.74 (4.67?.86) n =1.15 (0.99?.34)0.0.250 (0.222?.351) n=0.78 (0.63?.98)0.1.21 (1.09?.35)0.5.69 (4.30?.70)1.19 (0.97?.41)0.UM = uncomplicated malaria; NCSM = non-cerebral severe malaria; CM = cerebral malaria. The median (IQR) of each parameter is shown, unless otherwise indicated. The 24 children met the following criteria for NCSM: 1 had severe malarial anemia, 9 had prostration, and 14 had repetitive vomiting. d p-values were calculated using the Mann-Whitney test, unless otherwise indicated. e For sex comparisons, the associ.Counted, then multiplying this number by 25 (which assumes an average number of 7500 leukocytes per ml whole blood). Hemoglobin levels were measured again 72 hours later. Uncomplicated falciparum malaria was defined by fever (axillary temperature 37.5uC, or history of fever in the previous 24 hours) in the presence of any asexual P. falciparum density with no symptoms or signs of severe malaria or other etiologies of febrile illness discernible by history taking and physical examination. We treated these children with artesunate 4 mg/kg plus amodiaquine 10 mg/kg, given orally, for 3 consecutive days (days 0, 1, and 2) and confirmed they were aparasitemic on day 3. Children with uncomplicated malaria and P. falciparum density 100,000/ml whole blood were treated as for severe malaria. Severe P. falciparum malaria was defined by the presence of any parasite density plus any one of the following: coma (defined as Blantyre coma score #2), convulsions (witnessed by the study investigator), severe prostration, severe anemia (hemoglobin #5 g/dl), respiratory distress (deep acidotic breathing), hypoglycemia (serum glucose #40 mg/dl), jaundice/icterus, shock (systolic blood pressure #50 mmHg, rapid pulse, cool extremities), cessation of eating and drinking, and repetitive vomiting. All children diagnosed with cerebral malaria met the criterion of coma, had neither hypoglycemia nor convulsions, and responded clinically to antimalarial therapy alone; ocular fundoscopy was not performed. Children with severe malaria were treated with artesunate, given intravenously, followed by the drug regimen for uncomplicated malaria when the child was able to take oral medication.Plasma collectionIn May 2008, before the malaria season, we obtained 2?0 ml venous blood from a sub-cohort of 162 children aged 2?4 years who were healthy and aparasitemic (thick blood film negative for P. falciparum). During the 2008 malaria season, we obtained 2?10 ml venous blood from all children in the cohort who developed malaria, at each episode and prior to antimalarial drug administration. We collected all blood samples into sodiumUric Acid and Malaria PathogenesisTable 1. Demographic, parasitological and biochemical parameters, stratified by clinical presentation.aNCSMc n = 24 p-valued NCSM vs. UM p-valued CM vs. UMParameterbUM n =Fold-change (95 CI) NCSM/UMCM n=Fold-change (95 CI) CM/UMmales49.54.1.20e (0.52?.89)0.6823f33.0.51e (0.11?.17)0.5040fAge (years)5 (3?)6 (3?) 22888 (6975?6012) 11.0 (8.9?2.2) 9.9 (8.4?0.8)1.00 (0.80?.50) 3.00 (1.38?.92) 1.03 (0.95?.10) 0.94 (0.87?.01)0.1 (0.875?)0.25 (0.17?.40) 5.77 (1.70?2.7) 0.91 (0.77?.06) 0.76 (0.67?.86),0.Parasite density 8600 (/ml) (787.5?6150) Hb level at 0 hours (g/dl) 10.5 (9.3?1.6) Hb level at 72 hours (g/dl) 10.2 (9.1?1.4) n = 451 Creatinine (mg/ 0.344 dl) (0.281?.423) n = 466 Uric acid (mg/dl) 4.60 (3.84?.39) n =a0.34350 (10300?38150)0.0.9.0 (7.6?2.0)0.0.7.5 (6.7?.1)0.0.412 (0.289?.484) n = 23 5.74 (4.67?.86) n =1.15 (0.99?.34)0.0.250 (0.222?.351) n=0.78 (0.63?.98)0.1.21 (1.09?.35)0.5.69 (4.30?.70)1.19 (0.97?.41)0.UM = uncomplicated malaria; NCSM = non-cerebral severe malaria; CM = cerebral malaria. The median (IQR) of each parameter is shown, unless otherwise indicated. The 24 children met the following criteria for NCSM: 1 had severe malarial anemia, 9 had prostration, and 14 had repetitive vomiting. d p-values were calculated using the Mann-Whitney test, unless otherwise indicated. e For sex comparisons, the associ.