Y absorbed [9]. A major portion of unabsorbed polyphenols will reach the

Y absorbed [9]. A major portion of unabsorbed polyphenols will reach the large intestine where they will be metabolized by the gut microbiota to a wide range of lower molecular weight metabolites, which are generally better absorbed by the host [10]. We have reported TF, TF3G, TF39G, and order SR 3029 gallicMicrobial Metabolites of TheaflavinsFigure 1. Structures of TFDG, TF3G, TF39G, TF, GA, and PG and the potential biotransformation pathways of TFDG, TF3G, TF39G, and GA by human microbiota. TFDG: theaflavin 3,39-digallate; TF3G: theaflavin 3-gallate; TF39G: theaflavin 39-gallate; TF: theaflavin; GA: gallic acid; 22948146 and PG: pyrogallol. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051001.gacid (GA) as the major fecal metabolites of TFDG in mice and hypothesized that these compounds are the microbial metabolites of TFDG [11]. However, definitive involvement of bacteria in the metabolism of TFDG remains to be established. Culture models of human colonic microbiota that simulate microbial processes in the large intestine have been widely used to investigate the microbial metabolism of dietary polyphenols [12?14]. The complexity of in vitro gut models is diverse, ranging from simple fecal batch fermentation to advanced continuous models, such as the Reading model, the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME), and the TNO Intestinal Model 2 (TIM2) [14]. Compared to more sophisticated, but time consuming in vitro gut models, fecal batch incubations provide a simple mean to assess multiple experimental conditions by using fecal samples from different subjects [15]. In addition, this approach can help to shed light on the inter-individual variations on the metabolism of polyphenols due to differences in microbial community composition of different human subjects [14]. Another powerful approach is the utilization of germ-free mice where microbial status on a given rodent is amenable to experimental manipulation, hence providing a unique opportunity to address the role of bacteria in a specific biological process [16,17].In the present study, we Eliglustat web investigated the metabolism of TFDG using specific pathogen free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) mice, to determine the functional role of bacteria in the metabolism of TFDG. We also used specific bacteria to investigate the metabolism of TFDG. Furthermore, we utilized in vitro batch fermentations using fecal samples from human volunteers to define theaflavins metabolism. We report that the microbiota is essential for the metabolisms of TFDG, TF3G, and TF39G.Results Metabolism of TFDG in SPF Mice and GF MiceWe have identified TF, TF3G, TF39G, and GA as the major fecal metabolites of TFDG in mice and hypothesized that these compounds are the product of microbial enzymatic activities [11]. To test this hypothesis, fecal samples were collected from SPF and GF mice treated with 200 mg/kg TFDG via oral gavage and analyzed by HPLC 15755315 coupled with electrochemical detector (ECD) (Figure 2). Compared with the samples collected from control mice, 4 major metabolites (M22M5) were observed in fecal samples collected from TFDG treated SPF mice (Figures 2A). The four metabolites showed the same retention times as those of theMicrobial Metabolites of Theaflavinsauthentic standards of GA, TF, TF3G, and TF39G (Figure 2A). The structures of the four metabolites were confirmed by LC/MS analysis (data not shown). Whereas, none of those metabolites were detected in fecal samples collected from TFDG treated GF mice (Figure 2B), indicating that those m.Y absorbed [9]. A major portion of unabsorbed polyphenols will reach the large intestine where they will be metabolized by the gut microbiota to a wide range of lower molecular weight metabolites, which are generally better absorbed by the host [10]. We have reported TF, TF3G, TF39G, and gallicMicrobial Metabolites of TheaflavinsFigure 1. Structures of TFDG, TF3G, TF39G, TF, GA, and PG and the potential biotransformation pathways of TFDG, TF3G, TF39G, and GA by human microbiota. TFDG: theaflavin 3,39-digallate; TF3G: theaflavin 3-gallate; TF39G: theaflavin 39-gallate; TF: theaflavin; GA: gallic acid; 22948146 and PG: pyrogallol. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051001.gacid (GA) as the major fecal metabolites of TFDG in mice and hypothesized that these compounds are the microbial metabolites of TFDG [11]. However, definitive involvement of bacteria in the metabolism of TFDG remains to be established. Culture models of human colonic microbiota that simulate microbial processes in the large intestine have been widely used to investigate the microbial metabolism of dietary polyphenols [12?14]. The complexity of in vitro gut models is diverse, ranging from simple fecal batch fermentation to advanced continuous models, such as the Reading model, the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME), and the TNO Intestinal Model 2 (TIM2) [14]. Compared to more sophisticated, but time consuming in vitro gut models, fecal batch incubations provide a simple mean to assess multiple experimental conditions by using fecal samples from different subjects [15]. In addition, this approach can help to shed light on the inter-individual variations on the metabolism of polyphenols due to differences in microbial community composition of different human subjects [14]. Another powerful approach is the utilization of germ-free mice where microbial status on a given rodent is amenable to experimental manipulation, hence providing a unique opportunity to address the role of bacteria in a specific biological process [16,17].In the present study, we investigated the metabolism of TFDG using specific pathogen free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) mice, to determine the functional role of bacteria in the metabolism of TFDG. We also used specific bacteria to investigate the metabolism of TFDG. Furthermore, we utilized in vitro batch fermentations using fecal samples from human volunteers to define theaflavins metabolism. We report that the microbiota is essential for the metabolisms of TFDG, TF3G, and TF39G.Results Metabolism of TFDG in SPF Mice and GF MiceWe have identified TF, TF3G, TF39G, and GA as the major fecal metabolites of TFDG in mice and hypothesized that these compounds are the product of microbial enzymatic activities [11]. To test this hypothesis, fecal samples were collected from SPF and GF mice treated with 200 mg/kg TFDG via oral gavage and analyzed by HPLC 15755315 coupled with electrochemical detector (ECD) (Figure 2). Compared with the samples collected from control mice, 4 major metabolites (M22M5) were observed in fecal samples collected from TFDG treated SPF mice (Figures 2A). The four metabolites showed the same retention times as those of theMicrobial Metabolites of Theaflavinsauthentic standards of GA, TF, TF3G, and TF39G (Figure 2A). The structures of the four metabolites were confirmed by LC/MS analysis (data not shown). Whereas, none of those metabolites were detected in fecal samples collected from TFDG treated GF mice (Figure 2B), indicating that those m.