Harvested from spinal cords of control (PBS) and sCD25 treated IL-

Harvested from spinal cords of control (PBS) and sCD25 treated IL-17AeGFP reporter mice (3 per group) on day 15 after immunization and analysed for expression of IL-17 and IFN-c by CD4+ cells. (C) Cell numbers of CD4+IL-17+ and CD4+ IFNc+ cells in spinal cords of IL-17A-eGFP reporter mice at day 15. Data representative of mean +/2 std dev of 3 mice per group and 2 independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047748.g(Figure 3A). In contrast, no effects of sCD25 were observed on the MedChemExpress SMER28 generation of either 1676428 Th1 or inducible Treg subsets (Figure 3 A, B C). As Th17 cells are considered critical in driving the pathogenesis of EAE, these data are consistent with our earlier in vivo data (Figure 1). We also examined what influence sCD25 may have on Th17 cell proliferation and survival as IL-2 is a well established T cell growth buy HIV-RT inhibitor 1 factor and we observed an increase in the overall numbers of infiltrating CD4+ T cells in the spinal cords of treated mice (Figure 1C), Although sCD25 resulted in an increase in the proportion of cells expressing IL-17A, it did not affect either the rate of cell division as determined by levels of CFSE dilution, or levels of survival/cell death, as measured by incorporation of 7-AAD, under these conditions (Figure 3D). However, consistent with the enhanced generation of a Th17 response, we also observed increased levels of phosphorylation 25837696 of STAT3 (Figure 3E). sCD25 also led to a marginal but reproducible increased expression of both IL-17F and the Th17 associated chemokine receptor CCR6, while levels of IL-22 expression were not affected (data not shown). These data clearly demonstrate that sCD25 can enhance Th17 cell development in vitro and suggest a mechanism through which sCD25 may increase autoimmune disease severity.sCD25 Enhances Th17 ResponsesFigure 2. sCD25 enhances peripheral antigen specific Th17 responses. (A) Levels of IL-17A and IFNc secreted by draining lymph node cells of mice immunized and treated as above (3 per group), isolated after 9 days, and restimulated ex vivo with MOG33255 (10 mg/ml) for 72 hours. (B) Percentage of CD4+ IL-17A-eGFP+ve cells after treatment as above and ex vivo restimulation for 72 hours. (C) Percentage and (D) relative number ratios of CD4+FoxP3+:CD4+FoxP3- T cells in the draining lymph nodes of both sCD25 and control treated immunized mice. 3 mice per group were analysed. Data in D G is representative of mean +/2 standard deviation. Statistical Significance determined by unpaired student’s t-test, * p#0.05, **p#0.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047748.gsCD25 inhibits IL-2R signalling on Th17 cells through sequestering extracellular IL-Recent reports have demonstrated that CD4+ FoxP3+ve Tregs can enhance the generation of Th17 type responses early during the developmental programme by limiting the bioavailability of IL-2 through constitutive expression of CD25 on their cell surface [18,19]. Given these observations, we investigated whether sCD25 could act in a similar way. Strikingly, the presence of sCD25 led to a significant enhancement of IL-17A (11 vs 2 ) expression early during Th17 cell differentiation (48 hours) indicating that sCD25 also mediated its effects early during Th17 development (Figure 4A). Consistent with this observation, sCD25 also led toincreased expression of the Th17 instructive transcription factor RORcT (Figure 4B). As the effects of sCD25 were similar to those observed for IL-2 neutralization [9], we examined whether signalling downstream of th.Harvested from spinal cords of control (PBS) and sCD25 treated IL-17AeGFP reporter mice (3 per group) on day 15 after immunization and analysed for expression of IL-17 and IFN-c by CD4+ cells. (C) Cell numbers of CD4+IL-17+ and CD4+ IFNc+ cells in spinal cords of IL-17A-eGFP reporter mice at day 15. Data representative of mean +/2 std dev of 3 mice per group and 2 independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047748.g(Figure 3A). In contrast, no effects of sCD25 were observed on the generation of either 1676428 Th1 or inducible Treg subsets (Figure 3 A, B C). As Th17 cells are considered critical in driving the pathogenesis of EAE, these data are consistent with our earlier in vivo data (Figure 1). We also examined what influence sCD25 may have on Th17 cell proliferation and survival as IL-2 is a well established T cell growth factor and we observed an increase in the overall numbers of infiltrating CD4+ T cells in the spinal cords of treated mice (Figure 1C), Although sCD25 resulted in an increase in the proportion of cells expressing IL-17A, it did not affect either the rate of cell division as determined by levels of CFSE dilution, or levels of survival/cell death, as measured by incorporation of 7-AAD, under these conditions (Figure 3D). However, consistent with the enhanced generation of a Th17 response, we also observed increased levels of phosphorylation 25837696 of STAT3 (Figure 3E). sCD25 also led to a marginal but reproducible increased expression of both IL-17F and the Th17 associated chemokine receptor CCR6, while levels of IL-22 expression were not affected (data not shown). These data clearly demonstrate that sCD25 can enhance Th17 cell development in vitro and suggest a mechanism through which sCD25 may increase autoimmune disease severity.sCD25 Enhances Th17 ResponsesFigure 2. sCD25 enhances peripheral antigen specific Th17 responses. (A) Levels of IL-17A and IFNc secreted by draining lymph node cells of mice immunized and treated as above (3 per group), isolated after 9 days, and restimulated ex vivo with MOG33255 (10 mg/ml) for 72 hours. (B) Percentage of CD4+ IL-17A-eGFP+ve cells after treatment as above and ex vivo restimulation for 72 hours. (C) Percentage and (D) relative number ratios of CD4+FoxP3+:CD4+FoxP3- T cells in the draining lymph nodes of both sCD25 and control treated immunized mice. 3 mice per group were analysed. Data in D G is representative of mean +/2 standard deviation. Statistical Significance determined by unpaired student’s t-test, * p#0.05, **p#0.01. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047748.gsCD25 inhibits IL-2R signalling on Th17 cells through sequestering extracellular IL-Recent reports have demonstrated that CD4+ FoxP3+ve Tregs can enhance the generation of Th17 type responses early during the developmental programme by limiting the bioavailability of IL-2 through constitutive expression of CD25 on their cell surface [18,19]. Given these observations, we investigated whether sCD25 could act in a similar way. Strikingly, the presence of sCD25 led to a significant enhancement of IL-17A (11 vs 2 ) expression early during Th17 cell differentiation (48 hours) indicating that sCD25 also mediated its effects early during Th17 development (Figure 4A). Consistent with this observation, sCD25 also led toincreased expression of the Th17 instructive transcription factor RORcT (Figure 4B). As the effects of sCD25 were similar to those observed for IL-2 neutralization [9], we examined whether signalling downstream of th.