During plant development that is established by polar auxin transport [22,23]. Two

During plant development that is established by polar auxin transport [22,23]. Two protein families, PIN-FORMED (PINs) efflux carriers and ATP-binding cassette/multi-drug resistance/P-glycoprotein (ABCB/MDR/PGP) transporters, are involved in auxin efflux [23?6]. PIN encodes a 67-kilodalton protein with similarity to bacterial and eukaryotic carrier proteins [23]. There are eight members of the PIN family in the Arabidopsis genome [22]. As described above, pin-formed1 (pin1) was first characterized by needle-like inflorescence stems [23]. pin1 also exhibits JSI-124 defects in vascular patterning, organogenesis, and phyllotaxis [23,27,28]. Physiological studies performed to date in planta and/or heterologous systems have demonstrated that at least five PINs act as a rate-limiting step in cellular auxin efflux. And consistent with their role as auxin polar transporters, some of the PIN proteins display polar localization, especially in embryonic development and organogenesis, although some are distributed without prominent polarity in certain tissues (for a review, see [22]). In Arabidopsis, ABCB1/PGP1 and ABCB19/PGP19/MDR1, like PINs, have been shown to be involved in auxin transport in both plant and heterologous systems [24,25,29?2]. ABCB1/ABCB19, together with the PIN family of proteins, is involved in auxin efflux [33,34]. ABCB1/ABCB19 and PINs are co-localized in certain tissues, where they interact [33]. These ABCB-PIN protein interactions enhance the efficiency of auxin transport and substrate/inhibitor specificities when co-expressed in a heterologous system [33]. ABCB19 also stabilizes PIN1 in membrane microdomains [35]. ABCB1 and ABCB19 interact with FKBP-like protein TWISTED DWARF 1(TWD1), and their co-expression enhances auxin export in HeLa cells [36,37]. TWD1 is also necessary for the localization 23977191 of ABCB19 [38]. ABCB1 and ABCB19 contribute to long-distance basipetal auxin transport in the seedling apex, upper inflorescence stem and root hair cells [24,25,29,32,39]; moreover, they function in auxin retention in the stele of the root [33]. Mutations in abcb19 Anlotinib web produce several defects, including epinastic cotyledons and first true leaves, curled and wrinkled rosette leaf margins, and slight waviness in the hypocotyl of etiolated seedlings [24]. Lesions in ABCB1, the closest relative of ABCB19, produce no morphological differences from wild type [24]. However, the abcb1 abcb19 1326631 displays more severe defects than abcb19 [24]. ABCB1 and ABCB19 also participate in photomorphogenesis [32,40]. Further, ABCB19 functions in gravitropism and phototropism [29,41,42]. Here, we identified a new allele of abcb19, named abcb19-5, which shows organ fusion defects in addition to the phenotypes already described for abcb19 [24]. CUC2 was down-regulated in abcb19 and cuc3 greatly enhanced the organ fusion phenotype of abcb19-5, reminiscent of the cuc2 cuc3. Further more, some other organ boundary genes were also down-regulated in abcb19. Our results reveal a new function for the auxin transporter ABCB19.addition, the mutant exhibited epinastic cotyledons and wavy roots and hypocotyls at the seedling stage (Figure 1B-E). Furthermore, organ fusion defects occurred at both stem-cauline leaf junctions (the abnormal growth of the proximal part of the cauline leaf fused with the stem) (Figure 1F and G) and stem-pedicel junctions (Figure 1H and I). This fusion, which was seen on the primary and secondary branches, was most obvious on rosette branches. The stem-c.During plant development that is established by polar auxin transport [22,23]. Two protein families, PIN-FORMED (PINs) efflux carriers and ATP-binding cassette/multi-drug resistance/P-glycoprotein (ABCB/MDR/PGP) transporters, are involved in auxin efflux [23?6]. PIN encodes a 67-kilodalton protein with similarity to bacterial and eukaryotic carrier proteins [23]. There are eight members of the PIN family in the Arabidopsis genome [22]. As described above, pin-formed1 (pin1) was first characterized by needle-like inflorescence stems [23]. pin1 also exhibits defects in vascular patterning, organogenesis, and phyllotaxis [23,27,28]. Physiological studies performed to date in planta and/or heterologous systems have demonstrated that at least five PINs act as a rate-limiting step in cellular auxin efflux. And consistent with their role as auxin polar transporters, some of the PIN proteins display polar localization, especially in embryonic development and organogenesis, although some are distributed without prominent polarity in certain tissues (for a review, see [22]). In Arabidopsis, ABCB1/PGP1 and ABCB19/PGP19/MDR1, like PINs, have been shown to be involved in auxin transport in both plant and heterologous systems [24,25,29?2]. ABCB1/ABCB19, together with the PIN family of proteins, is involved in auxin efflux [33,34]. ABCB1/ABCB19 and PINs are co-localized in certain tissues, where they interact [33]. These ABCB-PIN protein interactions enhance the efficiency of auxin transport and substrate/inhibitor specificities when co-expressed in a heterologous system [33]. ABCB19 also stabilizes PIN1 in membrane microdomains [35]. ABCB1 and ABCB19 interact with FKBP-like protein TWISTED DWARF 1(TWD1), and their co-expression enhances auxin export in HeLa cells [36,37]. TWD1 is also necessary for the localization 23977191 of ABCB19 [38]. ABCB1 and ABCB19 contribute to long-distance basipetal auxin transport in the seedling apex, upper inflorescence stem and root hair cells [24,25,29,32,39]; moreover, they function in auxin retention in the stele of the root [33]. Mutations in abcb19 produce several defects, including epinastic cotyledons and first true leaves, curled and wrinkled rosette leaf margins, and slight waviness in the hypocotyl of etiolated seedlings [24]. Lesions in ABCB1, the closest relative of ABCB19, produce no morphological differences from wild type [24]. However, the abcb1 abcb19 1326631 displays more severe defects than abcb19 [24]. ABCB1 and ABCB19 also participate in photomorphogenesis [32,40]. Further, ABCB19 functions in gravitropism and phototropism [29,41,42]. Here, we identified a new allele of abcb19, named abcb19-5, which shows organ fusion defects in addition to the phenotypes already described for abcb19 [24]. CUC2 was down-regulated in abcb19 and cuc3 greatly enhanced the organ fusion phenotype of abcb19-5, reminiscent of the cuc2 cuc3. Further more, some other organ boundary genes were also down-regulated in abcb19. Our results reveal a new function for the auxin transporter ABCB19.addition, the mutant exhibited epinastic cotyledons and wavy roots and hypocotyls at the seedling stage (Figure 1B-E). Furthermore, organ fusion defects occurred at both stem-cauline leaf junctions (the abnormal growth of the proximal part of the cauline leaf fused with the stem) (Figure 1F and G) and stem-pedicel junctions (Figure 1H and I). This fusion, which was seen on the primary and secondary branches, was most obvious on rosette branches. The stem-c.