Th EGF (100 ng/ml). Representative images of the wounded region are

Th EGF (100 ng/ml). Representative images of the wounded region are shown. The results of the Title Loaded From File migration assay are also shown as graphs (*p,0.05). (C) The invasion potential of AGS stable cells was assessed using the BD transwell chamber assay with 100 ng/ml EGF in the lower chamber for 24 hours. The cells that migrated to the lower side of the filter were stained, photographed, and counted. (D) The expression of p-EGFR, E-cadherin in the PKM2 rescuing experiments with stably transfected method by using over-expression plasmid vector pcDNA6.0-mock and pcDNA6.0-PKM2 in BGC823 and AGS cells which stable knockdown PKM2. (E) The functional changes of cell migration and invasion after PKM2 rescuing. The data are expressed as the mean 6 SD from three independent experiments (*p,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.Title Loaded From File 0067542.gPkM2 Regulates the EGF/EGFR SignalFigure 4. PKM2 enhanced the activities of EGF/EGFR downstream signaling pathways in AGS cells and was correlated with ERK activity in gastric cancer specimens. (A) AGS stable cells were exposed to EGF (100 ng/ml) for different times. Western blots of cell lysates were performed. The phospho-EGFR (Tyr1068), phospho-PLCc1 (Tyr783), phospho-Gab1 (Tyr627), phosphor-c-cbl (Tyr700), and phospho-ERK1/2 (Thr202/ Tyr204) protein levels are shown as indicated. (B) MMP7 expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in AGS stable cells. The data are expressed as the mean 6 SD from three independent experiments (*p,0.05). (C) IHC staining with the indicated antibodies was performed on 15 human gastric cancer specimens. Representative photos of the tumor, which were taken in the same part of the same piece of tissue, are shown. (D) The correlation analysis among PKM2, E-cadherin and P-ERK1/2 was completed using the Image-pro Plus software. The mean density (IOD/area) was detected in different positive areas of 15 human gastric cancer specimens. The correlation analysis between PKM2 and E-cadherin was determined in an E-cadherin positive area. The correlation analysis between PKM2 and p-ERK1/2 was determined in an E-cadherin negative area. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067542.gPkM2 Regulates the EGF/EGFR Signalpromoted cell migration and invasion in BGC823 and SGC7901 cells with EGF stimulation. An increased activity of the EGFR is the 23148522 critical factor in determining the cell motility and invasiveness of BGC823 and SGC7901 cells. We hypothesized that the downregulation of E-cadherin expression enhanced the phosphorylation of the EGFR and activated the downstream signaling pathways, which include PLCc1 and ERK1/2. PLC c activation enhances cell motility, and ERK1/2 activity plays a critical role in MMP7 expression. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis because of their extracellular matrix (ECM)-proteolytic activity [22]. MMP-7 has been reported to be produced by gastric carcinoma cells and is significantly associated with the aggressive pathological phenotypes of gastric cancer [23]. MMP-7 can activate pro-MMP-1, has strong stromelysin-like activity and degrades insoluble elastin, type IV collagen, laminin-1, fibronectin, proteoglycan and gelatins [24]. The ERK/MAPK pathways play critical roles in EGF nduced MMP7 expression [25]. E-cadherin is a cell-adhesion glycoprotein characterized for the first time in human cell lines by Shimoyama et al [26]. Its role in gastric cancer development was first defined by Guilford et al [27]. There is a significant.Th EGF (100 ng/ml). Representative images of the wounded region are shown. The results of the migration assay are also shown as graphs (*p,0.05). (C) The invasion potential of AGS stable cells was assessed using the BD transwell chamber assay with 100 ng/ml EGF in the lower chamber for 24 hours. The cells that migrated to the lower side of the filter were stained, photographed, and counted. (D) The expression of p-EGFR, E-cadherin in the PKM2 rescuing experiments with stably transfected method by using over-expression plasmid vector pcDNA6.0-mock and pcDNA6.0-PKM2 in BGC823 and AGS cells which stable knockdown PKM2. (E) The functional changes of cell migration and invasion after PKM2 rescuing. The data are expressed as the mean 6 SD from three independent experiments (*p,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067542.gPkM2 Regulates the EGF/EGFR SignalFigure 4. PKM2 enhanced the activities of EGF/EGFR downstream signaling pathways in AGS cells and was correlated with ERK activity in gastric cancer specimens. (A) AGS stable cells were exposed to EGF (100 ng/ml) for different times. Western blots of cell lysates were performed. The phospho-EGFR (Tyr1068), phospho-PLCc1 (Tyr783), phospho-Gab1 (Tyr627), phosphor-c-cbl (Tyr700), and phospho-ERK1/2 (Thr202/ Tyr204) protein levels are shown as indicated. (B) MMP7 expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in AGS stable cells. The data are expressed as the mean 6 SD from three independent experiments (*p,0.05). (C) IHC staining with the indicated antibodies was performed on 15 human gastric cancer specimens. Representative photos of the tumor, which were taken in the same part of the same piece of tissue, are shown. (D) The correlation analysis among PKM2, E-cadherin and P-ERK1/2 was completed using the Image-pro Plus software. The mean density (IOD/area) was detected in different positive areas of 15 human gastric cancer specimens. The correlation analysis between PKM2 and E-cadherin was determined in an E-cadherin positive area. The correlation analysis between PKM2 and p-ERK1/2 was determined in an E-cadherin negative area. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067542.gPkM2 Regulates the EGF/EGFR Signalpromoted cell migration and invasion in BGC823 and SGC7901 cells with EGF stimulation. An increased activity of the EGFR is the 23148522 critical factor in determining the cell motility and invasiveness of BGC823 and SGC7901 cells. We hypothesized that the downregulation of E-cadherin expression enhanced the phosphorylation of the EGFR and activated the downstream signaling pathways, which include PLCc1 and ERK1/2. PLC c activation enhances cell motility, and ERK1/2 activity plays a critical role in MMP7 expression. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis because of their extracellular matrix (ECM)-proteolytic activity [22]. MMP-7 has been reported to be produced by gastric carcinoma cells and is significantly associated with the aggressive pathological phenotypes of gastric cancer [23]. MMP-7 can activate pro-MMP-1, has strong stromelysin-like activity and degrades insoluble elastin, type IV collagen, laminin-1, fibronectin, proteoglycan and gelatins [24]. The ERK/MAPK pathways play critical roles in EGF nduced MMP7 expression [25]. E-cadherin is a cell-adhesion glycoprotein characterized for the first time in human cell lines by Shimoyama et al [26]. Its role in gastric cancer development was first defined by Guilford et al [27]. There is a significant.