Killing. V52 and V52DvasK were used as virulent and avirulent

Killing. V52 and V52DvasK were used as virulent and avirulent controls, respectively. V. cholerae and E. coli were mixed in a 10:1 ratio and incubated for 4 hours at 37uC. Bacterial spots were resuspended, serially diluted, and plated on E. coli-selective media to determine the number of surviving E. coli. The averages and standard deviations of two independent experiments, each performed in duplicates are shown. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048320.gCompetition Mechanisms of V. choleraeFigure 2. RGVC isolates with a constitutive T6SS kill D. discoideum. 103 D. discoideum cells were plated with indicated bacteria on SM/5 agar plates that support bacterial but not amoeboid growth. Plaques formed by D. discoideum were counted on the third day of incubation. The graph summarizes the results of two independent experiments. Standard deviations are shown. KP: Klebsiella pneumoniae. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048320.gan equal volume of lysis buffer and boiled for 10 minutes. Samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE (10 acrylamide) and analyzed by western blotting using a rabbit polyclonal antibody against DnaK (Stressgen, diluted 1:15,000), mouse anti-RNAP (Neoclone, diluted1:1000), mouse anti-beta-lactamase (Sigma, diluted 1:200), and polyclonal rabbit anti-Hcp [5] P7C3 antiserum (diluted 1:500). Secondary antibodies used were goat anti-mouse horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and goat anti-rabbit HRP (both Santa Cruz, diluted 1:3000).and selective growth on agar containing 50 mg?mL21 rifampicin and 100 mg?mL21 streptomycin, respectively. Where applicable, arabinose was added to LB plates at a final concentration of 0.1 to induce expression from the PBAD promoter during the 4 hour incubation.D. discoideum Plaque Assays100 mL of overnight bacterial culture and 103 D. discoideum AX3 cells were spread on SM/5 plates [22]. Arabinose (0.1 ) was added to SM/5 plates when indicated. Plates were incubated at 22uC for 3 days to assess the number of plaques.Bacterial Killing AssayBacterial strains were grown as lawns on LB-agar plates with appropriate antibiotics. Environmental non-V. cholerae strains were grown on 1/2 YTSS agar plates with appropriate antibiotics. Streptomycin-resistant (Teriparatide web rifampicin-sensitive) predator and rifampicin-resistant (streptomycin-sensitive) prey were harvested and mixed at a 10:1 ratio with volumes normalized by OD600 readings. 25 mL of the mixed bacterial culture was spotted onto prewarmed LB-agar (or 1/2 YTSS agar plates for mixtures containing non-V. cholerae strains) and incubated at 37uC (or 30uC for non-V. cholerae strains) for 4 h. Bacterial spots were harvested and the CFU?mL21 of surviving prey and predator were measured by serial dilutionFigure 3. RGVC isolates differ in T6SS regulation. Indicated RGVC isolates and V52 (positive control) were cultured to midlogarithmic phase of growth followed by centrifugal separation of pellets and culture supernatants. Supernatant portions were concentrated by TCA precipitation and both fractions were subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by western blotting using the antibodies indicated. Experiments were repeated at least three times with equivalent results. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048320.gCompetition Mechanisms of V. choleraeFigure 4. Complementation of a vasK null-mutation restores T6SS-dependent secretion and virulence. (A) VasK-mutants of smooth RGVC isolates carrying a plasmid for arabinose-induced vasK expression were cultured to midlogarithmic phase of growth in the presence or absence of 0.1.Killing. V52 and V52DvasK were used as virulent and avirulent controls, respectively. V. cholerae and E. coli were mixed in a 10:1 ratio and incubated for 4 hours at 37uC. Bacterial spots were resuspended, serially diluted, and plated on E. coli-selective media to determine the number of surviving E. coli. The averages and standard deviations of two independent experiments, each performed in duplicates are shown. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048320.gCompetition Mechanisms of V. choleraeFigure 2. RGVC isolates with a constitutive T6SS kill D. discoideum. 103 D. discoideum cells were plated with indicated bacteria on SM/5 agar plates that support bacterial but not amoeboid growth. Plaques formed by D. discoideum were counted on the third day of incubation. The graph summarizes the results of two independent experiments. Standard deviations are shown. KP: Klebsiella pneumoniae. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048320.gan equal volume of lysis buffer and boiled for 10 minutes. Samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE (10 acrylamide) and analyzed by western blotting using a rabbit polyclonal antibody against DnaK (Stressgen, diluted 1:15,000), mouse anti-RNAP (Neoclone, diluted1:1000), mouse anti-beta-lactamase (Sigma, diluted 1:200), and polyclonal rabbit anti-Hcp [5] antiserum (diluted 1:500). Secondary antibodies used were goat anti-mouse horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and goat anti-rabbit HRP (both Santa Cruz, diluted 1:3000).and selective growth on agar containing 50 mg?mL21 rifampicin and 100 mg?mL21 streptomycin, respectively. Where applicable, arabinose was added to LB plates at a final concentration of 0.1 to induce expression from the PBAD promoter during the 4 hour incubation.D. discoideum Plaque Assays100 mL of overnight bacterial culture and 103 D. discoideum AX3 cells were spread on SM/5 plates [22]. Arabinose (0.1 ) was added to SM/5 plates when indicated. Plates were incubated at 22uC for 3 days to assess the number of plaques.Bacterial Killing AssayBacterial strains were grown as lawns on LB-agar plates with appropriate antibiotics. Environmental non-V. cholerae strains were grown on 1/2 YTSS agar plates with appropriate antibiotics. Streptomycin-resistant (rifampicin-sensitive) predator and rifampicin-resistant (streptomycin-sensitive) prey were harvested and mixed at a 10:1 ratio with volumes normalized by OD600 readings. 25 mL of the mixed bacterial culture was spotted onto prewarmed LB-agar (or 1/2 YTSS agar plates for mixtures containing non-V. cholerae strains) and incubated at 37uC (or 30uC for non-V. cholerae strains) for 4 h. Bacterial spots were harvested and the CFU?mL21 of surviving prey and predator were measured by serial dilutionFigure 3. RGVC isolates differ in T6SS regulation. Indicated RGVC isolates and V52 (positive control) were cultured to midlogarithmic phase of growth followed by centrifugal separation of pellets and culture supernatants. Supernatant portions were concentrated by TCA precipitation and both fractions were subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by western blotting using the antibodies indicated. Experiments were repeated at least three times with equivalent results. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048320.gCompetition Mechanisms of V. choleraeFigure 4. Complementation of a vasK null-mutation restores T6SS-dependent secretion and virulence. (A) VasK-mutants of smooth RGVC isolates carrying a plasmid for arabinose-induced vasK expression were cultured to midlogarithmic phase of growth in the presence or absence of 0.1.