.035) and absence of response to treatment (p = 0.011). PAH is consequence of

.035) and absence of response to treatment (p = 0.011). PAH is consequence of a heterogeneous constellation of genetic arrangements. Patients with several pathogenic mutations seem to display a more severe phenotype. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH; OMIM #178600, ORPHA 422) is a progressive, poorly characterized disease with low incidence and prevalence in the general population1, and a poor prognosis in terms of quality of life, morbidity and mortality2. Pulmonary circulation in PAH is characterized by an increased mean pulmonary arterial pressure at rest 25 mmHg2,3. The aetiology is quite diverse, resulting in a large variability at both clinical and genetic levels4 which further complicates the patient management, a systematic diagnostic evaluation and finally, lead to a premature heart failure and death5. In the V World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in Nice3, PAH was classified as idiopathic (IPAH) when the origin is unknown, heritable (HPAH) when the disease is inherited within an autosomal dominant pattern with incomplete penetrance, or associated when other conditions Avasimibe site co-occur (APAH)3. The global incidence is 2? cases per million per year4. However, in countries as USA or France this value is lower, 1? and 2.4 cases per million per year, respectively6,7, whereas Scotland shows a higher incidence with 7.6 cases per million per year8. Finally, in Spain this value is 3.3 cases per million per year1,9. There is a female predominance in patients with PAH, with a gender ratio of 1.7:1 female to male10,11, as it has been widely reported. The bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor gene (BMPR2; MIM #600799), a SIS3 site member of the transforming growth factor (TGF-) superfamily, was the first causal gene identified in PAH and is mutated in approximately 10 to 40 of IPAH patients and 80 of patients with HPAH. This gene is located on chromosome 2q3310,12?5. Other genes have been associated with the disease, including Activin A type II receptor like kinase 1 (ALK1/ ACVRL1; MIM #601284), located on chromosome 12q1316,17, Endoglin (ENG; MIM #601284)10, located on chromosome 9q33-3417,18, and Potassium voltage-gated channel, shakerrelated subfamily, member 5 (KCNA5; MIM #176267), located on chromosome 12p1319,20. Mutations in ACVRL1, ENG and KCNA5 genes are less frequent than mutations in BMPR2 gene in patients with PAH12,18. Patients with a pathogenic mutation in these genes develop a more severe phenotype and have an earlier age at diagnosis12,13,18. Recently, new genes related to PAH have been described as Potassium Channel Subfamily K, Member 3 (KCNK3; MIM #603220)21, Caveolin-1 (CAV1; MIM #601047)22, Cerebellin 2 Precursor (CBLN2; MIM #600433)23 or T-box 4 (TBX4; MIM #601719)24.received: 15 February 2016 Accepted: 25 August 2016 Published: 15 SeptemberDept. Biochemistry, Genetics and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Vigo, As Lagoas Marcosende S/N, 36310 Vigo, Spain. 2Instituto de Investigaci Sanitaria Galicia Sur, (IIS-Galicia Sur), Vigo, Spain. 3Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Pontevedra, Servicio de Neumolog , Pontevedra, Spain. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to D.V. (email: [email protected])Scientific RepoRts | 6:33570 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 1. Graphical representation of the patients included in this study and their clinical features. Age displayed is the age at diagnosis. PAH: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension; IPAH: Idiopathic Pulmonary Art..035) and absence of response to treatment (p = 0.011). PAH is consequence of a heterogeneous constellation of genetic arrangements. Patients with several pathogenic mutations seem to display a more severe phenotype. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH; OMIM #178600, ORPHA 422) is a progressive, poorly characterized disease with low incidence and prevalence in the general population1, and a poor prognosis in terms of quality of life, morbidity and mortality2. Pulmonary circulation in PAH is characterized by an increased mean pulmonary arterial pressure at rest 25 mmHg2,3. The aetiology is quite diverse, resulting in a large variability at both clinical and genetic levels4 which further complicates the patient management, a systematic diagnostic evaluation and finally, lead to a premature heart failure and death5. In the V World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in Nice3, PAH was classified as idiopathic (IPAH) when the origin is unknown, heritable (HPAH) when the disease is inherited within an autosomal dominant pattern with incomplete penetrance, or associated when other conditions co-occur (APAH)3. The global incidence is 2? cases per million per year4. However, in countries as USA or France this value is lower, 1? and 2.4 cases per million per year, respectively6,7, whereas Scotland shows a higher incidence with 7.6 cases per million per year8. Finally, in Spain this value is 3.3 cases per million per year1,9. There is a female predominance in patients with PAH, with a gender ratio of 1.7:1 female to male10,11, as it has been widely reported. The bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor gene (BMPR2; MIM #600799), a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF-) superfamily, was the first causal gene identified in PAH and is mutated in approximately 10 to 40 of IPAH patients and 80 of patients with HPAH. This gene is located on chromosome 2q3310,12?5. Other genes have been associated with the disease, including Activin A type II receptor like kinase 1 (ALK1/ ACVRL1; MIM #601284), located on chromosome 12q1316,17, Endoglin (ENG; MIM #601284)10, located on chromosome 9q33-3417,18, and Potassium voltage-gated channel, shakerrelated subfamily, member 5 (KCNA5; MIM #176267), located on chromosome 12p1319,20. Mutations in ACVRL1, ENG and KCNA5 genes are less frequent than mutations in BMPR2 gene in patients with PAH12,18. Patients with a pathogenic mutation in these genes develop a more severe phenotype and have an earlier age at diagnosis12,13,18. Recently, new genes related to PAH have been described as Potassium Channel Subfamily K, Member 3 (KCNK3; MIM #603220)21, Caveolin-1 (CAV1; MIM #601047)22, Cerebellin 2 Precursor (CBLN2; MIM #600433)23 or T-box 4 (TBX4; MIM #601719)24.received: 15 February 2016 Accepted: 25 August 2016 Published: 15 SeptemberDept. Biochemistry, Genetics and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Vigo, As Lagoas Marcosende S/N, 36310 Vigo, Spain. 2Instituto de Investigaci Sanitaria Galicia Sur, (IIS-Galicia Sur), Vigo, Spain. 3Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Pontevedra, Servicio de Neumolog , Pontevedra, Spain. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to D.V. (email: [email protected])Scientific RepoRts | 6:33570 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 1. Graphical representation of the patients included in this study and their clinical features. Age displayed is the age at diagnosis. PAH: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension; IPAH: Idiopathic Pulmonary Art.