Cz et al.Pagesuggesting that long-term, individual SFT is an effective

Cz et al.Pagesuggesting that long-term, individual SFT is an effective treatment for individuals with BPD, and that it outperforms TFP in terms of symptomatic improvement (50)NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAlthough SFT Cycloheximide cost findings are promising, a long-term individual treatment may not be feasible in most mental healthcare settings. To address this concern, Farrell and colleagues (51) adapted SFT to be delivered in a group format over 30 sessions, as an adjunct to individual psychotherapy. The group treatment consisted of psychoeducation about BPD, skills training for T0901317 price Emotional awareness and distress tolerance, and schema change work. The latter module focused on weakening maladaptive schemas enough to allow the patients to practice and apply other skills. Similar to individual SFT, in-session activities included cognitive restructuring, experiential activities (e.g., empty chair technique) and behavioral skills practice (51). Women with BPD were randomized to receive either TAU (n = 16) or eight months of group-SFT in addition to TAU (n = 16). Patients were assessed at baseline, posttreatment and six-month follow-up. Findings indicated a significant effect favoring SFT BPD symptoms, general psychiatric symptom severity, and global functioning. Patients in the SFT group showed improvements in all BPD symptom domains. At post-treatment, 94 of patients in the SFT group no longer met diagnostic criteria for BPD, whereas only 25 of the TAU group reached this criterion. In sum, SFT appears to reduce BPD symptoms and enhance overall functioning, whether it is delivered as a long-term individual psychotherapy or as a shorter-term adjunctive group treatment. Individual SFT compared favorably to longterm psychodynamic psychotherapy, delivered by well-trained and experienced clinicians.Skills-Based InterventionsSkills training has emerged as an important component of treatment for patients with BPD. Skills training is based on the assumption that individuals with BPD lack the skills necessary to behave effectively in the situations they encounter. Skills training interventions aim to remediate these deficits by providing direct instruction, modeling, and opportunities for rehearsal and coaching (17). With skills in hand, patients are better able to avert crises or manage them without resorting to self-damaging behavior, which allows individual therapy to progress. Although DBT skills (described above) are widely adopted, two additional skills-based groups warrant mention. Like DBT, both interventions aim to reduce selfdamaging behavior through the development of emotion regulation and other skills. However, in light of these similarities, there are important practical, conceptual and empirical differences among these interventions. Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a manualized skills-based group treatment designed to reduce the self-damaging behaviors associated with BPD. STEPPS is based on the premise that individuals with BPD have limited access to specific strategies to regulate emotions or manage behavior in a way that promotes emotional stability and that these difficulties are exacerbated by ineffective use of support systems (52) To address these deficits, STEPPS integrates a systems perspective with a traditional CBT skills training approach. STEPPS consists of 20 weekly group sessions, divided into four modules. The first component of treatment has the.Cz et al.Pagesuggesting that long-term, individual SFT is an effective treatment for individuals with BPD, and that it outperforms TFP in terms of symptomatic improvement (50)NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAlthough SFT findings are promising, a long-term individual treatment may not be feasible in most mental healthcare settings. To address this concern, Farrell and colleagues (51) adapted SFT to be delivered in a group format over 30 sessions, as an adjunct to individual psychotherapy. The group treatment consisted of psychoeducation about BPD, skills training for emotional awareness and distress tolerance, and schema change work. The latter module focused on weakening maladaptive schemas enough to allow the patients to practice and apply other skills. Similar to individual SFT, in-session activities included cognitive restructuring, experiential activities (e.g., empty chair technique) and behavioral skills practice (51). Women with BPD were randomized to receive either TAU (n = 16) or eight months of group-SFT in addition to TAU (n = 16). Patients were assessed at baseline, posttreatment and six-month follow-up. Findings indicated a significant effect favoring SFT BPD symptoms, general psychiatric symptom severity, and global functioning. Patients in the SFT group showed improvements in all BPD symptom domains. At post-treatment, 94 of patients in the SFT group no longer met diagnostic criteria for BPD, whereas only 25 of the TAU group reached this criterion. In sum, SFT appears to reduce BPD symptoms and enhance overall functioning, whether it is delivered as a long-term individual psychotherapy or as a shorter-term adjunctive group treatment. Individual SFT compared favorably to longterm psychodynamic psychotherapy, delivered by well-trained and experienced clinicians.Skills-Based InterventionsSkills training has emerged as an important component of treatment for patients with BPD. Skills training is based on the assumption that individuals with BPD lack the skills necessary to behave effectively in the situations they encounter. Skills training interventions aim to remediate these deficits by providing direct instruction, modeling, and opportunities for rehearsal and coaching (17). With skills in hand, patients are better able to avert crises or manage them without resorting to self-damaging behavior, which allows individual therapy to progress. Although DBT skills (described above) are widely adopted, two additional skills-based groups warrant mention. Like DBT, both interventions aim to reduce selfdamaging behavior through the development of emotion regulation and other skills. However, in light of these similarities, there are important practical, conceptual and empirical differences among these interventions. Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a manualized skills-based group treatment designed to reduce the self-damaging behaviors associated with BPD. STEPPS is based on the premise that individuals with BPD have limited access to specific strategies to regulate emotions or manage behavior in a way that promotes emotional stability and that these difficulties are exacerbated by ineffective use of support systems (52) To address these deficits, STEPPS integrates a systems perspective with a traditional CBT skills training approach. STEPPS consists of 20 weekly group sessions, divided into four modules. The first component of treatment has the.