Ples. The variants were analyzed with an exhaustive in silico analysis

Ples. The variants were analyzed with an exhaustive in silico analysis with bioinformatics tools (Tables 3 and 4). Focusing on order GS-4059 Synergisidin chemical information patients with several mutations, all the mutations identified here were located in coding region for BMPR2, ACVRL1 and KCNA5 genes, and also in intronic junctions for ENG gene. Moreover, missense changes accounted for 86 of total, whereas nonsense mutations were only identified in 13 of patients. Synonymous changes and intronic variants were detected in 40 and 26 of these patients, respectively. These results are shown in Fig. 4. We found several mutations in BMPR2 gene in a 20 of patients with several mutations included in this study. In addition, we detected only one patient that showed two pathogenic mutations in ENG gene.Genotype correlation with clinical and hemodynamic parameters.Clinical and hemodynamic parameters were compared between patients with several mutations and patients with only one pathogenic mutation. We also performed genotype-phenotype correlation between patients with several pathogenic mutations and patients without mutations. The statistical variables considered here were gender, age at diagnosis, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPaP), systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPaP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), cardiac index (CI), 6 minute walking text (6MWT), PAH type (IPAH vs APAH) and response to treatment. Patients who did not respond were treated with Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors. Variables were categorized according to the best cut off point by ROC curve. Regarding to the correlation between patients with several mutations and patients with a single mutation, we found statistically significant differences for gender (p = 0.045), with a greater number of women with several mutations, the age at diagnosis (p = 0.035), showing disease symptoms 11 years earlier, and a significantly higher PVR (p = 0.030) than patients with single mutation. Furthermore, patients with several mutations showed significant differences regarding CI (p = 0.035) and no response to therapy (p = 0.011) (Table 5). When comparing patients with several mutations and patients with no mutations, the results are quite similar to the abovementioned (Table 5). We did not find statistically significant differences according to PAH type (p = 0.401). Three out of 57 patients in our cohort died during the mean follow up period (14 months). The first deceased patient had APAH (connective tissue disease) and he was carrier of c.251G > T (p.C84F) and c.981T > C (p.P327P) BMPR2 mutations. The second one had IPAH and showed c.229A > T (p.I77L) and c.633A > G (p.R211R) mutations in BMPR2 gene and c.1272 + 6A > T mutation in ENG gene. Finally, the last deceased patient was classified as APAH (porto-pulmonary hypertension) and harboured c.1021G > A (p.V341M) mutation in BMPR2 gene and c.498G > A (p.Q166Q) mutation in ENG gene.In this study, we have identified and characterized 15 out of 57 PAH patients carrying more than one pathogenic mutation in several genes related to PAH, such as BMPR2, ENG, ACVRL1 and KCNA5. Twelve of these patients harboured at least one mutation in BMPR2, reinforcing the role of this gene in the development of PAH. On the other hand, nine patients were carriers of mutations in the ENG gene, representing the second gene most frequently involved in our cohort of PAH patients with several mutations. Remarkably, eight patients showed mutations in both genes. However, only five and one patients ha.Ples. The variants were analyzed with an exhaustive in silico analysis with bioinformatics tools (Tables 3 and 4). Focusing on patients with several mutations, all the mutations identified here were located in coding region for BMPR2, ACVRL1 and KCNA5 genes, and also in intronic junctions for ENG gene. Moreover, missense changes accounted for 86 of total, whereas nonsense mutations were only identified in 13 of patients. Synonymous changes and intronic variants were detected in 40 and 26 of these patients, respectively. These results are shown in Fig. 4. We found several mutations in BMPR2 gene in a 20 of patients with several mutations included in this study. In addition, we detected only one patient that showed two pathogenic mutations in ENG gene.Genotype correlation with clinical and hemodynamic parameters.Clinical and hemodynamic parameters were compared between patients with several mutations and patients with only one pathogenic mutation. We also performed genotype-phenotype correlation between patients with several pathogenic mutations and patients without mutations. The statistical variables considered here were gender, age at diagnosis, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPaP), systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPaP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), cardiac index (CI), 6 minute walking text (6MWT), PAH type (IPAH vs APAH) and response to treatment. Patients who did not respond were treated with Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors. Variables were categorized according to the best cut off point by ROC curve. Regarding to the correlation between patients with several mutations and patients with a single mutation, we found statistically significant differences for gender (p = 0.045), with a greater number of women with several mutations, the age at diagnosis (p = 0.035), showing disease symptoms 11 years earlier, and a significantly higher PVR (p = 0.030) than patients with single mutation. Furthermore, patients with several mutations showed significant differences regarding CI (p = 0.035) and no response to therapy (p = 0.011) (Table 5). When comparing patients with several mutations and patients with no mutations, the results are quite similar to the abovementioned (Table 5). We did not find statistically significant differences according to PAH type (p = 0.401). Three out of 57 patients in our cohort died during the mean follow up period (14 months). The first deceased patient had APAH (connective tissue disease) and he was carrier of c.251G > T (p.C84F) and c.981T > C (p.P327P) BMPR2 mutations. The second one had IPAH and showed c.229A > T (p.I77L) and c.633A > G (p.R211R) mutations in BMPR2 gene and c.1272 + 6A > T mutation in ENG gene. Finally, the last deceased patient was classified as APAH (porto-pulmonary hypertension) and harboured c.1021G > A (p.V341M) mutation in BMPR2 gene and c.498G > A (p.Q166Q) mutation in ENG gene.In this study, we have identified and characterized 15 out of 57 PAH patients carrying more than one pathogenic mutation in several genes related to PAH, such as BMPR2, ENG, ACVRL1 and KCNA5. Twelve of these patients harboured at least one mutation in BMPR2, reinforcing the role of this gene in the development of PAH. On the other hand, nine patients were carriers of mutations in the ENG gene, representing the second gene most frequently involved in our cohort of PAH patients with several mutations. Remarkably, eight patients showed mutations in both genes. However, only five and one patients ha.