E groups than in clinical and at-risk groups, where the gender

E groups than in clinical and at-risk groups, where the gender difference was absent. Child age was also a significant moderator (Qcontrast (2) = 6.01, p < .05), indicating that the combined effect size was largest in the youngest age group (0? years; d = 0.16, 95 CI [0.10, 0.22], p < .01, k = 41, n = 3,525), followed by the oldest age group (> 4 years; d = 0.08, 95 CI [0.04, 0.13], p < .01, k = 80, n = 7,050) and the Entinostat manufacturer Middle age group (2? years; d = 0.04, 95 CI [-0.06, 0.13], p = .44, k = 40, n = 5,104). The contrast between the youngest age group and the two older groups was also significant (Qcontrast (1) = 5.86, p < .05). None of the other moderators were significant. Continuous moderators were tested using meta-regression analyses, but none of them were significant. Differences between mothers' and fathers' gender-differentiated use of controlling strategies. To test whether mothers' and fathers' differential controlling of boys and girls was dependent on different moderators, two meta-analyses were conducted, separately for mothers and fathers. The combined effect size for mothers' differential controlling of boys and girls was small but significant (d = 0.07, 95 CI [0.03, 0.12], p < .01) in a heterogeneous set of studies (Q = 173.58, p < .01). The combined effect size for fathers was also significant (d = 0.12, 95 CI [0.06, 0.19], p < .01) in a heterogeneous set of studies (Q = 30.33, p < .01). Although the effect size for fathers was slightly higher than that for mothers, the 85 confidence intervals of mothers (85 CI [0.04, 0.11]) and fathers (85 CI [0.08, 0.17]) overlapped, indicating that mothers and fathers did not differ in the extent of their differential treatment of boys and girls; both were more controlling with their boys more than with their girls. For mothers, observation time was a significant moderator (Qcontrast (1) = 3.91, p < .05), next to child age and normativity of the sample. Mothers used more controlling strategies with boys than with girls but this effect could only be detected with observation longer than 10 minutes (0?0 minutes: d = 0.01, 95 CI [-0.10, 0.11], p = .91; > 10 minutes: d = 0.12, 95 CI [0.07, 0.16], p < .01). All 85 CIs for moderators tested in mothers and fathers were overlapping, indicating no differences between mothers and fathers for the effects of the moderators. Parents' differential use of psychological and harsh physical control with boys and girls. Separate meta-analyses were conducted for two types of controlling strategies: studies specifically examining psychological control (k = 15, n = 1,226), and studies examining harshPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0159193 July 14,15 /Gender-Differentiated Parental ControlTable 2. Parents' Controlling Behaviors. Characteristics Total set Sample Parent gender Father Mother Mixed Child age 0? years 2? years > 4 years Normative sample Yes No SES Low Middle High Mixed Ethnicity African-American N-A Caucasian Chinese W-E Caucasian South-American Procedure Verbal Only Mixed Setting Home Lab Task Free play Naturalistic GDC-0084 web Teaching Discipline Observation length 0?0 minutes 11?0 minutes > 60 minutes Coders gender Female Mixed Control child behavior Yes No Publication (Continued) 14 99 1,000 7,794 0.156* 0.083** [0.030, 0.283] [0.042, 0.125] 13 4 981 199 0.023 -0.008 [-0.084, 0.130] [-0.524, 0.507] 52 76 15 5,704 7,336 922 0.036 0.099** 0.113* [-0.049, 0.121] [0.052, 0.146] [0.013, 0.213] 30 33 69 25 2,887 3,164 7,019 2,515 0.089 0.111** 0.0.E groups than in clinical and at-risk groups, where the gender difference was absent. Child age was also a significant moderator (Qcontrast (2) = 6.01, p < .05), indicating that the combined effect size was largest in the youngest age group (0? years; d = 0.16, 95 CI [0.10, 0.22], p < .01, k = 41, n = 3,525), followed by the oldest age group (> 4 years; d = 0.08, 95 CI [0.04, 0.13], p < .01, k = 80, n = 7,050) and the middle age group (2? years; d = 0.04, 95 CI [-0.06, 0.13], p = .44, k = 40, n = 5,104). The contrast between the youngest age group and the two older groups was also significant (Qcontrast (1) = 5.86, p < .05). None of the other moderators were significant. Continuous moderators were tested using meta-regression analyses, but none of them were significant. Differences between mothers' and fathers' gender-differentiated use of controlling strategies. To test whether mothers' and fathers' differential controlling of boys and girls was dependent on different moderators, two meta-analyses were conducted, separately for mothers and fathers. The combined effect size for mothers' differential controlling of boys and girls was small but significant (d = 0.07, 95 CI [0.03, 0.12], p < .01) in a heterogeneous set of studies (Q = 173.58, p < .01). The combined effect size for fathers was also significant (d = 0.12, 95 CI [0.06, 0.19], p < .01) in a heterogeneous set of studies (Q = 30.33, p < .01). Although the effect size for fathers was slightly higher than that for mothers, the 85 confidence intervals of mothers (85 CI [0.04, 0.11]) and fathers (85 CI [0.08, 0.17]) overlapped, indicating that mothers and fathers did not differ in the extent of their differential treatment of boys and girls; both were more controlling with their boys more than with their girls. For mothers, observation time was a significant moderator (Qcontrast (1) = 3.91, p < .05), next to child age and normativity of the sample. Mothers used more controlling strategies with boys than with girls but this effect could only be detected with observation longer than 10 minutes (0?0 minutes: d = 0.01, 95 CI [-0.10, 0.11], p = .91; > 10 minutes: d = 0.12, 95 CI [0.07, 0.16], p < .01). All 85 CIs for moderators tested in mothers and fathers were overlapping, indicating no differences between mothers and fathers for the effects of the moderators. Parents' differential use of psychological and harsh physical control with boys and girls. Separate meta-analyses were conducted for two types of controlling strategies: studies specifically examining psychological control (k = 15, n = 1,226), and studies examining harshPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0159193 July 14,15 /Gender-Differentiated Parental ControlTable 2. Parents' Controlling Behaviors. Characteristics Total set Sample Parent gender Father Mother Mixed Child age 0? years 2? years > 4 years Normative sample Yes No SES Low Middle High Mixed Ethnicity African-American N-A Caucasian Chinese W-E Caucasian South-American Procedure Verbal Only Mixed Setting Home Lab Task Free play Naturalistic Teaching Discipline Observation length 0?0 minutes 11?0 minutes > 60 minutes Coders gender Female Mixed Control child behavior Yes No Publication (Continued) 14 99 1,000 7,794 0.156* 0.083** [0.030, 0.283] [0.042, 0.125] 13 4 981 199 0.023 -0.008 [-0.084, 0.130] [-0.524, 0.507] 52 76 15 5,704 7,336 922 0.036 0.099** 0.113* [-0.049, 0.121] [0.052, 0.146] [0.013, 0.213] 30 33 69 25 2,887 3,164 7,019 2,515 0.089 0.111** 0.0.