Lant tissues (fruits and seeds), invertebrates and fungi [21, 42].Stable isotope analysisPrior to the analysis, all food samples were oven-dried at 40 to remove traces of water and subsequently cut into fine pieces for analysis. The concentrations of nitrogen and carbon isotopes in mammals’ hair and food resources were determined by Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, using a Thermo Delta Plus mass spectrometer (Bremen, Germany)PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0152494 April 6,4 /Stable Isotopes and Diet of Small Mammalscoupled to a Carlo Erba CHN 1110 elemental analyzer (Milan, Italy). The 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotope ratios were evaluated and compared to calibrated gas ratios using pnas.1408988111 Pee Dee Belemnite carbonate and atmospheric fpsyg.2017.00007 N2, respectively according to the formula: R sampled dX ?? R standard where X refers to 13C or 15N and Rsample and Rstandard are the 13C/12C or 15N/14N ratios of sample and standard, respectively. The results were defined in delta notation () and reported as deviations in parts per mil () in relation to international patterns. Precision was estimated by the SD (standard deviations) of 44 replicates of an internal standard along the sample analyses as 0.09 and 0.12 for C and N, respectively. Here, we use 6-Methoxybaicalein biological activity isotopic values of small mammals to represent the assimilated food resources and, then, infer about trophic niche of organisms. The ratio 13C/12C differ between plants with distinct metabolisms and can propagate through the food chains. In general, C3 plants have 13C between -33 and -24 , C4 plants between -16 and -10 and CAM species between -20 to -10 . Thus, based on the position of a given ��-Amanitin supplement consumer along 13C axis is possible to discriminate individuals, species or groups with distinct assimilated resources. In turn, the ratio of 15 N/14N tends to increase in food chain with trophic level [43]. All isotope analyses were performed in Isotope Ecology Laboratory, Centro de Energia Nuclear e Agricultura (CENA) at Universidade de S Paulo, Piracicaba. Considering to our studied group, i.e adjusted consumer isotope values using the most appropriate mean diet-totissue trophic enrichment values 2.7 for 15N and 2.4 for 13C [44, 45]. Details on the results are in S1 Table.Data analysisPrior to carbon (13C) and nitrogen (15N) analysis, we checked if stable isotope values are normally distributed using Shapiro ilk test. To compare the isotopic niche space between rodents and marsupials we calculate standard ellipses, which represent the isotopic niche size of roughly 40 of species within the groups using bivariate normal distributions [46]. This method accounts for core isotopic niche areas, being less sensitive to sample size than convex hull methods, allowing more robust comparisons among groups [47]. To control sample sizes, we used the corrected version of the standard ellipse area (SEAC) [48]. To compare isotopic niche space between groups we compute the Bayesian estimate of the standard ellipse area (SEAB) [49]. We calculated and compared ellipses in each sampled community and for all sites polled together (using all captured individuals). To evaluate if interspecific variations in microhabitat use are associated with isotopic niche partitioning we first classified the species in four different groups of locomotor habits: arboreal, scansorial, semifossorial and terrestrial, following [50]. Using 13C and 15N, we calculate the standard ellipses (SEAC and SEAB) for each group of locomotor habit and sta.Lant tissues (fruits and seeds), invertebrates and fungi [21, 42].Stable isotope analysisPrior to the analysis, all food samples were oven-dried at 40 to remove traces of water and subsequently cut into fine pieces for analysis. The concentrations of nitrogen and carbon isotopes in mammals’ hair and food resources were determined by Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, using a Thermo Delta Plus mass spectrometer (Bremen, Germany)PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0152494 April 6,4 /Stable Isotopes and Diet of Small Mammalscoupled to a Carlo Erba CHN 1110 elemental analyzer (Milan, Italy). The 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotope ratios were evaluated and compared to calibrated gas ratios using pnas.1408988111 Pee Dee Belemnite carbonate and atmospheric fpsyg.2017.00007 N2, respectively according to the formula: R sampled dX ?? R standard where X refers to 13C or 15N and Rsample and Rstandard are the 13C/12C or 15N/14N ratios of sample and standard, respectively. The results were defined in delta notation () and reported as deviations in parts per mil () in relation to international patterns. Precision was estimated by the SD (standard deviations) of 44 replicates of an internal standard along the sample analyses as 0.09 and 0.12 for C and N, respectively. Here, we use isotopic values of small mammals to represent the assimilated food resources and, then, infer about trophic niche of organisms. The ratio 13C/12C differ between plants with distinct metabolisms and can propagate through the food chains. In general, C3 plants have 13C between -33 and -24 , C4 plants between -16 and -10 and CAM species between -20 to -10 . Thus, based on the position of a given consumer along 13C axis is possible to discriminate individuals, species or groups with distinct assimilated resources. In turn, the ratio of 15 N/14N tends to increase in food chain with trophic level [43]. All isotope analyses were performed in Isotope Ecology Laboratory, Centro de Energia Nuclear e Agricultura (CENA) at Universidade de S Paulo, Piracicaba. Considering to our studied group, i.e adjusted consumer isotope values using the most appropriate mean diet-totissue trophic enrichment values 2.7 for 15N and 2.4 for 13C [44, 45]. Details on the results are in S1 Table.Data analysisPrior to carbon (13C) and nitrogen (15N) analysis, we checked if stable isotope values are normally distributed using Shapiro ilk test. To compare the isotopic niche space between rodents and marsupials we calculate standard ellipses, which represent the isotopic niche size of roughly 40 of species within the groups using bivariate normal distributions [46]. This method accounts for core isotopic niche areas, being less sensitive to sample size than convex hull methods, allowing more robust comparisons among groups [47]. To control sample sizes, we used the corrected version of the standard ellipse area (SEAC) [48]. To compare isotopic niche space between groups we compute the Bayesian estimate of the standard ellipse area (SEAB) [49]. We calculated and compared ellipses in each sampled community and for all sites polled together (using all captured individuals). To evaluate if interspecific variations in microhabitat use are associated with isotopic niche partitioning we first classified the species in four different groups of locomotor habits: arboreal, scansorial, semifossorial and terrestrial, following [50]. Using 13C and 15N, we calculate the standard ellipses (SEAC and SEAB) for each group of locomotor habit and sta.