S linked using the emotional reaction to pressure. This could explain the cognitive and emotional anxiety reactions found in females as well as the physiological and behavioral reaction located in males within the present study. These gender differences in strain reactions had been also linked with variation in the risk of developing MSDs. Ladies who reacted emotionally to pressure had drastically higher odds (OR = 4.43 ) for MSDs, whereas males who exhibited behavioral reactions were additional most likely to sustain MSDs than females. Physiological reactions in males and cognitive reactions in females were associated using a lower risk for MSDs in both genders. Apart from a larger level of stress (role strain), other reasons for improved MSDs in females can be that girls are a lot more prepared to report MSDs than are guys, and they may be more exposed and vulnerable to risk things for MSDs. These are believed to become related with sexlinked biological things, distinctive pain sensitivity, and social or psychological things (49). Another essential discovering of this study was that the all round prevalence of MSDs (37.5 ) along with the sex-specific prevalence (35.two for males and 64.8 for females) obtained during the semester examination had been within the range of 150 obtained in most previous research (50, 51, 52). Brennan et al. (51) reported a prevalence of 32 amongst students engaged in education programs that have been physically demanding. In a related study in Australia, Nyland and Grimmer (53) discovered a prevalence of 63 among physiotherapy undergraduates, whereas in yet another study among Australian student nurses, a greater prevalence (80 ) of MSDs was reported (52). In China among Chinese healthcare students, MSD prevalence was 67.six (24). These discordant prevalence prices observed across studies might be ascribed towards the lack of a normal definition of MSDs and different instruments and scales for MSD measurement, resulting in distinctive case definitions and data-collecting procedures among a variety of studies (54). For example, in some research, neck issues are classified separately from shoulder problems, whilst in others, neckand shoulder disorders are combined together. In addition, in some epidemiological research, MSDs may be defined based only on symptoms, although in others, the definition may perhaps consist of symptoms and findings of physical examinations, thus making the outcomes incomparable among studies. Interestingly, we also identified that participants with MSDs had a greater BMI and lower physical activity status than those without having MSDs. These findings lend credence to results of other studies in the literature (55, 56). It has been recommended that the causal pathway through which high BMI causes MSDs is mechanical load, which can be believed to initiate degenerative modifications within the joints(57) and low-grade systemic inflammation (58, 59, 60). The larger incidence of MSDs among physically inactive respondents is constant using the current research indicating that an imbalance among the physical demands of a work environment and the physical capability of an MedChemExpress ZM241385 individual is really a threat aspect for MSDs (61). The non-significant variations in age amongst these with and these with out MSDs could have arisen simply because the respondents fell inside a close age variety (adolescents and young adults). Having said that, inconsistent associations in between age and MSDs have already been reported in earlier research. Although in some research, MSDs are popular in older adults 45 PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21344394 years (62), probably as a consequence of physiological and physical stren.