Formation mechanism of freshwater lenses, e.g., Hubbat (1953), Clumbus (1956), Henry (1959), Glover (1964) and Kaskef (1967) , who, respectively, used the conformal mapping method, the hydrodynamic approach, the velocity vector-end curve approach as well as the Dupuit hypothesis approximation approach to simulate the saline and freshwater sharp interfaces beneath a steady state based on laboratory and field experimental research. In 1992, Vacher  applied the Dupuit hyben erzberg (DGH) formula to calculate the analytical solutions ofPublisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.Copyright: 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is definitely an open access post distributed below the terms and situations on the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ four.0/).Water 2021, 13, 3272. https://doi.org/10.3390/whttps://www.mdpi.com/journal/waterWater 2021, 13,2 ofseveral infinite islands (if the island aspect ratio is higher than four.four, it could be regarded as infinite); by way of the analysis of homogeneous rectangular islands, it is actually discovered that the distinction of K (hydraulic conductivity) and (precipitation infiltration recharge coefficient) at various places in the island results in the asymmetry in the shape of your freshwater lens. Henry and Barbara  performed a field investigation of a freshwater lens on Extended Island, New York, applying electrical procedures and the observation of groundwater levels. The results on the study showed that, when treating the transition zone amongst salt and fresh water as a sharp interface, the thickness with the freshwater lens calculated beneath hydrostatic equilibrium circumstances is larger than the actual thickness plus the evaluation of your total subsurface freshwater sources with the island is overestimated. Zhou [13,14] studied the formation and dynamic process from the freshwater lens on a coral island by using the Visual MODFLOW numerical model and place forward the affordable improvement and protection method of freshwater lenses. Considering that then, numerous scholars have studied the formation, evolution and internal hydrodynamics of freshwater lenses by implies of physical experiments and numerical simulations [15,16]. Freshwater lenses of islands happen to be impacted by growing urban construction in current years and a lot of scholars have carried out relevant research. In 2010, White et al.  discovered that coastal erosion as a D-(-)-3-Phosphoglyceric acid disodium custom synthesis consequence of sand and TB-21007 web gravel mining in Pacific islands has decreased the thickness of soil above the water table, making the freshwater lens extra vulnerable to contamination by biochemicals, for example septic tanks, waste disposal locations, fertilizers and agrochemicals, posing really serious wellness risks. Huizer et al.  performed a calculation simulation of a sand dike constructed along the Dutch coast along with the benefits showed that the freshwater lens below the sand dike was primarily determined by groundwater recharge and was affected, to a minor extent, by geomorphic modifications, though storm surges caused a wide range of surface inundation and seawater infiltration, major to salinization of most fresh groundwater in the inundation zone. In 2018, Vincent et al.  investigated the smaller atoll of Bonriki and discovered that storm surges and over-pumping would result in seawater intrusion; the freshwater lens of Bonriki Island continues to be shrinking soon after 27.five years of pumping, where a thinner freshwater lens incr.