Laser-induced periodic surface structures; hafnium films; digital image processing; microscopy; laser supplies processing1. Introduction Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were found for the initial time by Birnbaum  five decades ago and considering the fact that then have attracted terrific interest for a theoretical explanation in the mechanism of structure formation and mainly because of their potential for sensible application. LIPSS with all the structures period comparable to the laser radiation wavelength and orientation perpendicular to laser polarization are generated inside the focusing region of laser radiation. The formation of these structures was obtained on just about any material, including metals [2,3], semiconductors , and dielectrics [7,8]. Despite the fact that to date a extensive theory of LIPSS formation isn’t out there, some theoretical approaches have been proposed for describing the mechanisms of structures formation, determined by hydrodynamic processes and models according to the interference from the incident laser beam with an electromagnetic wave scattered in the rough surface . Various sensible applications of these structures happen to be demonstrated to modify optical or physical properties of surfaces (as an example, to alter tribological properties or wettability of your original surface). In this regard, LIPSS have wonderful application prospects in different fields for example the creation of hydrophobic coatings , biomedicine , optical absorptance enhancement of metals surfaces , decreasing the friction coefficient of components , metal coloration  and fabrication of diffraction holograms .Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.Copyright: 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This short article is an open access write-up distributed under the terms and circumstances on the Inventive Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (licenses/by/ four.0/).Materials 2021, 14, 6714. 10.3390/mamdpi/journal/materialsMaterials 2021, 14,2 ofThe LIPSS formation mechanism according to an ablation method is thought of within a lot of articles, exactly where the periodic structures are formed under the initial surface level at COTI-2 Apoptosis maxima of your laser intensity distribution and have orientation perpendicular to the laser polarization direction. Nonetheless, additionally for the ablation course of action, the periodic structures is usually formed by implies of other mechanisms: photoreduction processes of graphene oxide film , thermal–driven modification processes at maxima from the periodic laser intensity distribution, for instance, a modification from a CC-90011 Histone Demethylase crystalline to an amorphous phase resulting in periodic structures of alternating amorphous-crystalline fringes in case of semiconductors , melting in case of polymers  or oxidation approach in case of metals and semiconductors [19,20]. In the last case, LIPSS formation is depending on thermo-stimulated reaction of oxidation that leads to periodic structures formation consisting of alternating areas in the oxidized ridges and unmodified metal together with the orientation parallel for the laser polarization direction. This kind of thermochemical LIPSS (TLIPSS) is characterized by a higher degree of ordering and has excellent prospective for practical applications, in particular for cost-effective micro-nanostructuring of surfaces in comparison with expensive lithographybased tactics. Since the formation of TLIPSS is according to the thermally stimulated procedure o.