Y harmful or not green molecules. This is the case i.e., for highly acidic DESs components as p-toluenesulfonic acid. In these cases, the usage of these liquids can nonetheless permit the avoidance of volatile mineral acidic elements . For the identical motives with the properties of the constituting components, DESs can also exhibit appreciable catalytic properties [8,272]. The impact seems to depend around the “availability” from the molecule forming the DES in exerting the catalytic action . An additional exciting facet about DESs, that is steadily gaining ground in the literature, is represented by the water dilutions of these weak forces-based systems, as water molecules can participate in the network of weak interaction [36,37]. The boost of the water dilutions leads to a solvation of clusters of couples of HBD-HBA molecules and to micro-domains of DESs and water; at values more than about 500 w/w the DESs’ deconstruction happens. Water dilutions, even after low amounts of added water, have peculiar and intriguing physical-chemical properties as they show a higher decrease of their viscosity and alterations in their polarity . These effects are however dependent around the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of your DESs’ components, so the values of water needed to determine structural alterations can slightly shift. Based on the final property, DESs are fruitfully applied in extraction and preconcentration procedures from diverse matrices, encompassing vegetal and biological ones [39,40]. Among the list of most intriguing regions exactly where DESs are discovering relevant final results is in their use as green liquids for biomass feedstocks treatment options, exactly where they are getting higher effectiveness . In unique, phenolic compounds of vegetal origin are successfully extracted/ D-Fructose-6-phosphate disodium salt In Vitro preconcentrated as they’re able to take part in the hydrogen bonds network together with the hydroxyl function too as with the aromatic portions that will act as hydrogen bond acceptors [24,46]. Among the numerous naturally occurring flavonoids, quercetin is presently among the most extensively studied because, besides its established anti-blood clotting, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and antioxidant properties [47,48], it also shows an effective antiviral and immunomodulatory activity. In specific, recent 4-Hydroxytamoxifen Modulator studies suggest the efficacy of quercetin-based formulations in minimizing symptoms severity and negative predictors of extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus two (SARS-CoV-2),Materials 2021, 14,3 ofwhich could be the trigger in the present COVID-19 international pandemic [49,50]. On the other hand, further studies are still necessary to demonstrate these relevant data . Amongst the distinctive strategies available for the extraction of quercetin, and of flavonoids from all-natural sources more usually, the ones primarily based on ultrasound- and microwave-assisted procedures are the most extensively applied. Besides the big well-recognized benefits of these strategies (speedy execution, a specific amount of environmentally friendly character, quick automation, etc.), a few of their extreme limitations and big drawbacks have already been also described . For instance, thermal degradation from the compounds of interest, at the same time as their accidental participation in unwanted/uncontrolled side reactions are worthy of noting. Nevertheless, the use of even compact percentages of volatile organic extraction solvents can represent an issue in terms of their environmental and security influence. Equally significant, working with ultrasound- and microwave-a.