Istent land cover, FM4-64 Description followed by the mixed built-up cover in KMA. Mixed built-up cover was largely becoming transitioned into built-up cover in KMA-urban, while in KMA-rural, all non-built-up land cover types had been largely getting transitioned into mixed built-up covers. Mixed built-up has been by far the most considerable adverse contributor to non-built-up covers, followed by the built-up cover. A dilemma in urban growth appears to be evident inside the metropolitan area, exactly where, on the one particular hand, the non-built-up land covers had been getting converted into mixed built-up along the periphery at a sizable scale because of urban sprawl; alternatively, due to the processes of urban growth including infill, expansion, and edge development, the current mixed built-up MAC-VC-PABC-ST7612AA1 site regions have been also becoming converted into pure urban built-up locations more than time [4,55]. The outcomes of NP and PD showed an escalating trend in mixed built-up more than KMArural, implying the incidence of an increase in fragmented urban growth over KMA-rural with time. KMA-urban showed a reduce in NP and PD soon after 2006, signifying the incidence of compact development in KMA-urban. The built-up LPI and AREA_MN had been identified to be significantly bigger in KMA-urban when compared with those in KMA-rural. Over time, the LPI and AREA_MN showed an escalating trend, even though non-built-up covers showed a decreasing trend in LPI and AREA_MN. The shape complexity of built-up and mixed built-up covers was quantified employing Shape_MN and PAFRAC. The results indicate that more than time, shape complexity in KMA-urban decreased as a result of compact urban growth, while it improved in KMA-rural as a result of speedy and haphazard built-up development, referred to as urban sprawl. The core location metrics, namely TCA and CPLAND, revealed a larger development trend in each built-up and mixed built-up covers in KMA over time. They highlighted the incidence of a considerable accumulation of new built-up development along the periphery. Having said that, mixed built-up showed a variable trend on the exact same timescale more than the KMA-urban and KMA-rural. The concentric zone analysis for the built-up and mixed built-up land covers employing the chosen metrics, namely PD, PLNAD, LPI, AREA_MN, and AI supported the observations discovered within the landscape metrics evaluation. In summary, they indicated that the pattern of built-up development tended to turn into fragmented, sub-divided, and dispersed with movement towards the periphery. In turn, the pattern of growth became additional contiguous towards the urban core . The outcomes from the Hn evaluation illustrated that the urban physical growth in all spatial levels in KMA was characterized by urban sprawl. Nevertheless, in KMA-urban, the rate of dispersion decreased over time, evidently as a result of approach of built-up infill, creating more compact built-up growth. In contrast, the price of dispersion in KMA-rural was nonetheless pretty high when compared with KMA-urban. This implies that the rural areas lying at the periphery inside KMA had been sprawling at a larger pace, characterized by leapfrogging plus the dispersed nature of built-up expansion [24,55]. This investigation adopted a zoning strategy. That may be, division into entire metropolitan, metropolitan-urban, and metropolitan-rural places to analyze the metropolitan development dynamics. Most of the current zoning approaches analyze urban growth at unique administrative levels, which include the ward or municipality level, which might not be productive in a predicament including the KMA [19,56]. This study found that the price and pattern of urban development were di.