Ere examined by flow cytometry. C. The percentage of apoptotic cells

Ere examined by flow cytometry. C. The percentage of apoptotic cells was calculated using the Cell Quest software. The data are presented as the mean 6 SD (error bars) of triplicate experiments. (**p,0.01; ***p,0.001). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047566.gFigure 4. Detection of apoptosis in SW620 cells by western blot. SW620 cells were infected with either ONYX-015, Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24) or Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) at an MOI of 5, for 48 h, the apoptosis-related proteins were analyzed by western blot. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047566.gPotent Antitumor Effect of Ad(ST13)*CEA*E1A(D24)Figure 5. The antitumor efficacy of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) in nude mice bearing a colorectal cancer SW620 xenograft. Tumors were established by injecting SW620 cells subcutaneously into the right flank of nude mice. When tumors reached 100?30 mm3, the mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8) and were treated daily with consecutive intratumoral injections four times of ONYX-015, Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24) or Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) at 56108 PFU/day and PBS. A. The tumor size was measured with calipers, and the tumor volume was calculated using the following formula: tumor volume (mm3) = 0.56length6width2. B. The survival curve for the animals during the buy Tunicamycin observation period. The data are presented as the mean 6 SD (error bars). A log-rank test has been used to analyze survival rates in the different groups. Statistical significance: a, p,0.001, compared with PBS; b, p,0.01, compared with ONYX015; c, p,0.05, compared with Ad*(EGFP)*CEA*E1A (D24). C. Hexon and ST13 expression in vivo. Tumor sections derived from PBS- or different adenovirus drugs treated 4 days were analyzed for Hexon and ST13 expression by immunohistochemistry. Original magnification 400x. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047566.g946 bp) and harboring the antitumor ST13 gene, as shown in Fig. 1A. The identification of ST13 and CEA expression by PCR was shown in Fig. 1B. To determine the E1A(D24) and ST13 expression of the various viruses, the CRC SW620 cell line was infected with either Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24), Ad?(EGFP) CEA?E1A(D24), or the typical oncolytic virus ONYX-015 at an MOI of 5. Western blot analyses were used to SPDP chemical information detect E1A(D24) and ST13 protein. The results showed that the Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) vector induced specific ST13 expression and the greatest E1A(D24) expression (Fig. 1C) in detectable CRC cells.CRC-specific Antitumor Effect of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) in vitroCEA-positive CRC cell lines (SW620, HCT116, and HT29), and three CEA-negative cancer cell lines (breast cancer Bcapcell line, Nasopharynageal carcinoma CNE cell line and cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line) and two normal cell lines (QSG7701 and WI38) were infected with either Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24), Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24), or ONYX-015 at the indicated MOIs (0.1, 1, 5, or 10). After 96 h, cell viability was analyzed using the MTT assay. As shown in Fig. 2A, the oncolytic effect of Ad (ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) treatment demonstrated a superior antitumor effect than did the treatment with Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24) or ONYX-015 at an MOI of 5 or 10. Furthermore, the inhibition was dose-dependent. The Bcap37, CNE and HeLa cells showed a lower level of inhibition than the three CRC cell lines, and there was no inhibition in the QSG7701 or WI38 normal cell lines. As shown in Fig. 2B, a time course for the treatment with the recombinant viruses was also tested. Cells were infected withPotent Antitumor Effect of Ad(ST13)*CEA*E1A(D24)Figure 6. The.Ere examined by flow cytometry. C. The percentage of apoptotic cells was calculated using the Cell Quest software. The data are presented as the mean 6 SD (error bars) of triplicate experiments. (**p,0.01; ***p,0.001). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047566.gFigure 4. Detection of apoptosis in SW620 cells by western blot. SW620 cells were infected with either ONYX-015, Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24) or Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) at an MOI of 5, for 48 h, the apoptosis-related proteins were analyzed by western blot. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047566.gPotent Antitumor Effect of Ad(ST13)*CEA*E1A(D24)Figure 5. The antitumor efficacy of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) in nude mice bearing a colorectal cancer SW620 xenograft. Tumors were established by injecting SW620 cells subcutaneously into the right flank of nude mice. When tumors reached 100?30 mm3, the mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8) and were treated daily with consecutive intratumoral injections four times of ONYX-015, Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24) or Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) at 56108 PFU/day and PBS. A. The tumor size was measured with calipers, and the tumor volume was calculated using the following formula: tumor volume (mm3) = 0.56length6width2. B. The survival curve for the animals during the observation period. The data are presented as the mean 6 SD (error bars). A log-rank test has been used to analyze survival rates in the different groups. Statistical significance: a, p,0.001, compared with PBS; b, p,0.01, compared with ONYX015; c, p,0.05, compared with Ad*(EGFP)*CEA*E1A (D24). C. Hexon and ST13 expression in vivo. Tumor sections derived from PBS- or different adenovirus drugs treated 4 days were analyzed for Hexon and ST13 expression by immunohistochemistry. Original magnification 400x. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047566.g946 bp) and harboring the antitumor ST13 gene, as shown in Fig. 1A. The identification of ST13 and CEA expression by PCR was shown in Fig. 1B. To determine the E1A(D24) and ST13 expression of the various viruses, the CRC SW620 cell line was infected with either Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24), Ad?(EGFP) CEA?E1A(D24), or the typical oncolytic virus ONYX-015 at an MOI of 5. Western blot analyses were used to detect E1A(D24) and ST13 protein. The results showed that the Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) vector induced specific ST13 expression and the greatest E1A(D24) expression (Fig. 1C) in detectable CRC cells.CRC-specific Antitumor Effect of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) in vitroCEA-positive CRC cell lines (SW620, HCT116, and HT29), and three CEA-negative cancer cell lines (breast cancer Bcapcell line, Nasopharynageal carcinoma CNE cell line and cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line) and two normal cell lines (QSG7701 and WI38) were infected with either Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24), Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24), or ONYX-015 at the indicated MOIs (0.1, 1, 5, or 10). After 96 h, cell viability was analyzed using the MTT assay. As shown in Fig. 2A, the oncolytic effect of Ad (ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) treatment demonstrated a superior antitumor effect than did the treatment with Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24) or ONYX-015 at an MOI of 5 or 10. Furthermore, the inhibition was dose-dependent. The Bcap37, CNE and HeLa cells showed a lower level of inhibition than the three CRC cell lines, and there was no inhibition in the QSG7701 or WI38 normal cell lines. As shown in Fig. 2B, a time course for the treatment with the recombinant viruses was also tested. Cells were infected withPotent Antitumor Effect of Ad(ST13)*CEA*E1A(D24)Figure 6. The.