Ignificant differences in well-being between the two groups. The advantages we

Ignificant differences in well-being between the two groups. The advantages we observed for adolescents in the congruently high group are 4F-Benzoyl-TN14003 biological activity aligned with findings from the variablecentered approach highlighting the order 3-MA benefits of high family heritage cultural socialization when peer heritage cultural socialization was also high. The non-significant difference between the incongruent group and the congruently low group parallels the findings from the variable-centered approach highlighting the diminished benefits of high family cultural socialization when peer cultural socialization was low. An identical pattern was observed for mainstream cultural socialization (see the lower portion of Table 5). Specifically, adolescents who received congruently high socialization toward the mainstream American culture from both their families and peers demonstrated lower socioemotional distress and better academic adjustment than the other two groups. Although adolescents in the incongruent group received relatively high levels mainstream socialization from their peers than adolescents in the incongruently low group, there was no significant difference in well-being between the two groups. Again, these findings are consistent with those based on the variable-centered approach.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptDiscussionRacial/ethnic minority youth live at the intersection of diverse cultures (e.g., the mainstream American culture, their heritage culture), and they receive a multitude of varying messages about these cultures from important others in their lives. Yet, the current literature base focuses almost exclusively on cultural socialization that youth experience from their parents, despite the fact that peers become key socializing agents during adolescence (B. B. Brown Larson, 2009). The current study is a first attempt to explore cultural socialization across developmental settings (i.e., at home, in peer groups) and how these settings work conjointly to influence adolescent well-being. Using a variable-centered approach, we found that the benefits of family cultural socialization were conditioned by peer cultural socialization based on adolescent reports, such that higher levels of heritage and mainstream cultural socialization at home were linked to better socioemotional and academic well-being when peer cultural socialization was also relatively high. We further used a person-centered approach to identify the prevalence of family-peer congruence versus incongruence in cultural socialization. Despite the common assumption that family and peer cultural contexts are drastically different for racial/ethnic minority and immigrant youth (Zhou, 1997; Uma Taylor et al., 2009), we identified similar proportions of adolescents reporting congruentlyJ Youth Adolesc. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 March 16.Wang and BennerPagehigh, congruently low, and incongruent socialization from their families and peers. Similar to findings from the variable-centered approach, adolescents in the congruently high group demonstrated optimal adjustment. Moreover, although the incongruent group received relatively high levels of cultural socialization in one setting, they did not demonstrate better well-being than the congruently low group. Family Cultural Socialization, Peer Cultural Socialization, and Adolescent Well-being Both family and peer cultural socialization toward the heritage culture and the mainstream American cultur.Ignificant differences in well-being between the two groups. The advantages we observed for adolescents in the congruently high group are aligned with findings from the variablecentered approach highlighting the benefits of high family heritage cultural socialization when peer heritage cultural socialization was also high. The non-significant difference between the incongruent group and the congruently low group parallels the findings from the variable-centered approach highlighting the diminished benefits of high family cultural socialization when peer cultural socialization was low. An identical pattern was observed for mainstream cultural socialization (see the lower portion of Table 5). Specifically, adolescents who received congruently high socialization toward the mainstream American culture from both their families and peers demonstrated lower socioemotional distress and better academic adjustment than the other two groups. Although adolescents in the incongruent group received relatively high levels mainstream socialization from their peers than adolescents in the incongruently low group, there was no significant difference in well-being between the two groups. Again, these findings are consistent with those based on the variable-centered approach.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptDiscussionRacial/ethnic minority youth live at the intersection of diverse cultures (e.g., the mainstream American culture, their heritage culture), and they receive a multitude of varying messages about these cultures from important others in their lives. Yet, the current literature base focuses almost exclusively on cultural socialization that youth experience from their parents, despite the fact that peers become key socializing agents during adolescence (B. B. Brown Larson, 2009). The current study is a first attempt to explore cultural socialization across developmental settings (i.e., at home, in peer groups) and how these settings work conjointly to influence adolescent well-being. Using a variable-centered approach, we found that the benefits of family cultural socialization were conditioned by peer cultural socialization based on adolescent reports, such that higher levels of heritage and mainstream cultural socialization at home were linked to better socioemotional and academic well-being when peer cultural socialization was also relatively high. We further used a person-centered approach to identify the prevalence of family-peer congruence versus incongruence in cultural socialization. Despite the common assumption that family and peer cultural contexts are drastically different for racial/ethnic minority and immigrant youth (Zhou, 1997; Uma Taylor et al., 2009), we identified similar proportions of adolescents reporting congruentlyJ Youth Adolesc. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 March 16.Wang and BennerPagehigh, congruently low, and incongruent socialization from their families and peers. Similar to findings from the variable-centered approach, adolescents in the congruently high group demonstrated optimal adjustment. Moreover, although the incongruent group received relatively high levels of cultural socialization in one setting, they did not demonstrate better well-being than the congruently low group. Family Cultural Socialization, Peer Cultural Socialization, and Adolescent Well-being Both family and peer cultural socialization toward the heritage culture and the mainstream American cultur.