Ty, Changsha 410128, P. R. China. 2Key laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology

Ty, Changsha 410128, P. R. China. 2Key laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, P. R. China. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to S.Z. (email: [email protected]) or Z.L. (email: [email protected])Scientific RepoRts | 6:32729 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 1. Chromosomal distribution of GrKMT and GrRBCMT genes. 52 GrKTTs and GrRBCMTs have been mapped on chromosomes D01-D13 except GrRBCMT;9b (Gorai.N022300). The chromosome map was constructed using the Mapchart 2.2 program. The scale on the chromosome represents megabases (Mb) and the chromosome number is indicated at the top of each chromosome. methyltransferases for nonhistone substrate in plants and consist of large subunit Rubisco methyltransferase (LSMT) and small subunit Rubisco methyltransferase (SSMT)8,10. It was shown that SET domain-containing proteins regulated plant developmental processes such as floral organogenesis, seed development11 and plant senescence12. More recent studies demonstrated that SET domain-containing proteins were also involved in plant defense in response to different environmental stresses. In euchromatin, methylation of histone H3K4, H3K36 and H3K27me3 were shown to be associated with gene regulations including transcriptional activation and gene silencing13. For example, histone modifications (e.g. enrichment in H3K4me3) on the H3 N-tail activated drought stress-responsive genes14. By establishing the trimethylation pattern of H3K4me3 residues of the nucleosomes, ATX1/SDG27 (Arabidopsis Homolog of Trithorax) regulates the SA/JA signaling pathway for plant defense against bacterial pathogens by activating the expression of the WRKY70, which was a critical transcription factor15. By regulating H3K36 methylation of histone proteins in JA (jasmonic acid) and/or ethylene13 and brassinosteroids signaling pathway, Arabidopsis SDG8 (SET Domain Group 8) was shown to play a critical role against fungal pathogens Alternaria brassicicola and Botrytis cinerea16. Furthermore, low or high temperature stress is one of serious environmental stresses affecting plant development. When Arabidopsis plants were exposed to cold temperature, H3K27me3 was significantly reduced in the area of chromatin containing COR15A (Cold-regulated15A) and ATGOLS3 (Galactinol Synthase 3) 17, which are cold stress response genes. In recent years, high temperature (HT) stress has gradually become a serious threat to crop production as global warming is getting worse. Cotton (Gossypium spp) is one of important crops in many parts of the world and is sensitive to HT stress18, which severely affects pollen formation, pollen germination, subsequent fertilization, and ovule longevity, leading to boll shedding and the significant reduction of cotton yield19. get PD-148515 Therefore there is a great urge to screen and identify the potential genes conferring resistance to HT stress in molecular breeding of cotton. However, our GW 4064MedChemExpress GW 4064 understanding of mechanisms of resistance to HT in cotton is limited. The progenitor of Gossypium raimondii (G. raimondii) may be the putative contributor of the D-subgenome of Gossypium hirsutum (G. hirsutum) and Gossypium barbadense (G. barbadense) and, more importantly, provides lots of resistant genes20. In this study, we identified SET domain-containing proteins from whole genome of G. raimondii. Based on the analysis of phylogenetic tree, classification, gene st.Ty, Changsha 410128, P. R. China. 2Key laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, P. R. China. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to S.Z. (email: [email protected]) or Z.L. (email: [email protected])Scientific RepoRts | 6:32729 | DOI: 10.1038/srepwww.nature.com/scientificreports/Figure 1. Chromosomal distribution of GrKMT and GrRBCMT genes. 52 GrKTTs and GrRBCMTs have been mapped on chromosomes D01-D13 except GrRBCMT;9b (Gorai.N022300). The chromosome map was constructed using the Mapchart 2.2 program. The scale on the chromosome represents megabases (Mb) and the chromosome number is indicated at the top of each chromosome. methyltransferases for nonhistone substrate in plants and consist of large subunit Rubisco methyltransferase (LSMT) and small subunit Rubisco methyltransferase (SSMT)8,10. It was shown that SET domain-containing proteins regulated plant developmental processes such as floral organogenesis, seed development11 and plant senescence12. More recent studies demonstrated that SET domain-containing proteins were also involved in plant defense in response to different environmental stresses. In euchromatin, methylation of histone H3K4, H3K36 and H3K27me3 were shown to be associated with gene regulations including transcriptional activation and gene silencing13. For example, histone modifications (e.g. enrichment in H3K4me3) on the H3 N-tail activated drought stress-responsive genes14. By establishing the trimethylation pattern of H3K4me3 residues of the nucleosomes, ATX1/SDG27 (Arabidopsis Homolog of Trithorax) regulates the SA/JA signaling pathway for plant defense against bacterial pathogens by activating the expression of the WRKY70, which was a critical transcription factor15. By regulating H3K36 methylation of histone proteins in JA (jasmonic acid) and/or ethylene13 and brassinosteroids signaling pathway, Arabidopsis SDG8 (SET Domain Group 8) was shown to play a critical role against fungal pathogens Alternaria brassicicola and Botrytis cinerea16. Furthermore, low or high temperature stress is one of serious environmental stresses affecting plant development. When Arabidopsis plants were exposed to cold temperature, H3K27me3 was significantly reduced in the area of chromatin containing COR15A (Cold-regulated15A) and ATGOLS3 (Galactinol Synthase 3) 17, which are cold stress response genes. In recent years, high temperature (HT) stress has gradually become a serious threat to crop production as global warming is getting worse. Cotton (Gossypium spp) is one of important crops in many parts of the world and is sensitive to HT stress18, which severely affects pollen formation, pollen germination, subsequent fertilization, and ovule longevity, leading to boll shedding and the significant reduction of cotton yield19. Therefore there is a great urge to screen and identify the potential genes conferring resistance to HT stress in molecular breeding of cotton. However, our understanding of mechanisms of resistance to HT in cotton is limited. The progenitor of Gossypium raimondii (G. raimondii) may be the putative contributor of the D-subgenome of Gossypium hirsutum (G. hirsutum) and Gossypium barbadense (G. barbadense) and, more importantly, provides lots of resistant genes20. In this study, we identified SET domain-containing proteins from whole genome of G. raimondii. Based on the analysis of phylogenetic tree, classification, gene st.